Mozart Analysis

Report
Mozart
Piano Concerto no 23 in A Major
Features of Classical Music
• Texture: Light and clear mainly homophonic
• Melody: Elegant and expressive
• Instruments: Orchestra grew from Baroque
Period. Piano featured lots.
• Form: Chamber music along with symphony,
sonata and concerto gained popularity. Sonata
form developed.
• Features: Alberti Bass – repeated figure in LH
– broken chord
Mozart’s Styles
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Skilled composer and pianist
Clear form and structure
Uses many themes linked brilliantly
Classical period usually had keys modulating
to related keys but Mozart often used
unexpected keys….SURPRISE!!!!
• Mozart developed the clarinet…writing solo
pieces for it.
Classical Form
• Concerto – Solo instrument contrasted against
the orchestra
• Cadenza – Solo section usually inserted at the
end to show the skill of the player.
• Ternary form – 3 part form where the first part
is identical to the last ABA
• Sonata Form – form in 3 sections Exposition,
Development and Recapitulation
Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major K488
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3 movements
Movement 1 – Sonata Form
Movement II – Ternary Form
Movement III – Sonata-Rondo Form
Sonata Rondo Form uses the recurring theme
idea of Rondo with the Sonata plan form
Form Comparisons
SONATA RONDO FORM – Movement III
SONATA FORM – Movement I
Section
Expo
Si
Subject
A
Key
TONIC
Tion
Development
Recap
Itula
B
A/B
A
B
DOM
VARIOUS
TONIC
TONIC
tion
1st Movement Analysis
Orchestral Exposition bars 1-66
Bars 1-8 Theme 1a
• A Major (Violin)
• Repeated by WW
Theme 1b bars 18-22 (violin)
• Rhythmic tune played by WW and strings
• Links 1st and 2nd Theme
1st Movement Analysis
Orchestral Exposition bars 1-66
Second Subject – Theme 2a (1c) bars 30-35 (Strings
repeated by WW not in Dom at this stage)
• Lyrical in nature contrasts other themes
Bars 46-52 – Theme 2aa (1d) bars energetic and
vibrant dialogue between strings and WW
• Closes orchestral exposition
1st Movement Analysis
Piano Exposition bars 67-156
Bars 67-74 Theme 1a
• A Major (Piano with string acc.)
• Repeated version decorated hugely
Theme 1b bars 83-98(piano)
• Broken chord acc in piano
• Scales and sequences in RH
• Links 1st and 2nd Theme – links to E Major
1st Movement Analysis
Piano Exposition bars 67-156
Second Subject – Theme 2a (1c) bars 99-106(Piano with
block chord) Repeated by Fl, Bassoon and 1st Violin
• Lyrical in nature contrasts other themes
Bars 115-136 – Theme 2aa (1d) Melody on piano
with Orchestral acc – Alberti bass
1st Movement Analysis
Piano Exposition bars 67-148
Bars 114-137 – Theme 2aa (1d)
• Piano plays wildly elaborately
Bars 137 – material from 1b acts as codetta still in E
major
Theme 3a (1e) bars 143-149 violin
• Sounds like new section but appears later in recap
so really belongs to the exposition. Describe it as a
‘development theme’.
1st Movement Analysis
Development b156-170
Bars 156-170 – Theme 3 (1e) Part One
• Expecting keys of A Major-E Major – D Major – 3 related minors
F# minor – C# minor – B minor
• However Mozart does not do this
• Key sequence uses falling 3rds E-C and C-A
Bars 156 – 4 bar phrase in E minor
• Dialogue between clarinets, bassoons and horns
Bar 160
• Repeated above idea in C Major
Bar 164
• Repeat but extend now in A minor
• Piano continues with idea ending in F Major
• Strings take idea into D minor
1st Movement Analysis
Development b170-198
Bars 170 – Theme 3 (1e) Part Two
• C material developed again
• Cl and fl play in canon at a 4th
• RH plays scales and semi-quaver passages
Bars 177
• F major chord begins preparation to bring piece back
to dominant E which brings music back to A for recap.
• B178-185 repeated E’s on low strings and horns
• RH plays scales and broken chords
• B197 rising chromatic scale
1st Movement Analysis
Recapitulation b198-314
• Fusion of orchestral and piano exposition.
• Material is shared between soloist and
orchestra
• Old themes returned but with renewed
freshness due to 1E being used in
development.
1st Movement Analysis
Recapitulation b198-314
• B198 – 1A as usual except with strings and flute.
• B213 – 1B as b82 with piano joining in. All in A
major.
• B229 – 1C now in original key (compare b99)
• B244 – 1D compare with b114
• B261 – Decorated piano passage with Cadenza in
sight 1E is re-introduced
• 1E played 3 times:
– Soloist
– Clarinet and Bassoon
– 4 part counterpoint with piano decoration
1st Movement Analysis
Recapitulation b198-314
• Theme 1E is original simplicity not like its
appearance in exposition two.
• Alberti bass b272 – ends on trill at b283
• B284 – Orchestra play 1B only 6 bars ends with 2
beats rest.
• B290 – 1E arrives again stating its importance –
very exuberant playing of the theme.
• B297 – Cadenza begins – soloist usually improves
but Mozart wrote it out…taking no chances for
the movement to become disjointed.
• B298 Coda – material from 1D used to close coda.
2nd Movement
Adagio
• Ternary form with 3 clear sections and a final
coda
• Section A begins in F# minor and ends in A
Major
• Section B uses one new idea
• Section A1 uses 2 of the A themes but alters
the 3rd theme
• This movement uses the siciliana form which
is a swaying rhythm in compound or duple
time.
2nd Movement
Adagio
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Section A Bars b1-35 F# minor to A Major
Section B – b35-53 A Major
Section A1 – b53-92 F# minor
Coda - b92 – A Major
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section A
• Theme 1 b1 – F# minor – 11 ½ bars
– Dotted Rhythm
– Syncopation
– Wide leaps
Theme 2 b12 F# minor – 8 bars
– No piano
– 2 bar idea played as sequence
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section A
• Theme 3 b 20 – F# minor-A Major – 8 bars
– Homophonic
– Turn, dotted rhythm
– Staccato and chromatic movement
– Repeated notes
– Modulation to A Major
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section B
• Theme 4 – b35 – 4 bar melody
– Flute plays
– Triplet arpeggios on clarinet
– Rising scales on ww
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section B
• Theme 4 – b39 – 4 bar melody repeated
– Played on flute, piano and clarinet
– 2nd clarinet plays 3rd below and LH plays arpeggios
– Horns play dominant pedal
B43 – 8 bars of dialogue and sequences on
orchestra and piano
B51 – 2 bar transition from A Major to F# minor
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section A1
• Theme 1 - b53 – F# minor
• Music of b1 repeated and extended
• Theme 2 – b68 – F# minor
• Repeats music of b12
• Theme 3 – b76 – F# minor
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4 bar melody on piano and strings
RH plays semiquaver version of theme 2
Grace notes and turns in RH
Alberti bass on LH
2nd Movement
Adagio – Section A1
• B80 – 4 bars of LH and Bassoon in dialogue
• B84 – 8 bar link passage with wide leaps on
piano
• B88 – 4 bars repeated with wind
accompaniment
2nd Movement
Coda
• B92 – 8 bars theme 2 melody on flute with
violin broken chord
• Repeated semi quavers on RH
• 1st clarinet joins flute
• 1st bassoon joins an octave lower
• Perfect cadence - F# minor ending

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