Language forms and features in*

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LANGUAGE FORMS AND FEATURES IN…
Holes
Louis Sachar
LEXICAL CHAIN & RECURRING MOTIF
“No-good
pig-stealing
dirty-rotten great great
Grandfather”
NOMENCLATURE
“Mr Sir”
REPETITION
One word lines
 Short sentences
 “lake”
 2nd person
narrative

MODALITY
Modal verbs convey a
range of judgments
about the likelihood of
events.
There are nine modal
verbs: "can", "could",
"may", "might", "will",
"would", "shall", "should",
and "must".
She might be there.
You could get there by
lunchtime if you hurry.
You'll hit the roof.
That must have hurt.
HYPERBOLE
Exaggeration… “I’ve told
you a million times!”
 Creates sarcasm
 Look for quotes from Mr
Sir

CLICHÉ
Over-used phrases or “sayings”
 Look for quotes from Mr Pendanski

Write a perfect paragraph in which you
explore the language forms, features and
structures in HOLES by Louis Sachar.
How? = What
language? techniques
are used?
IN CHAPTER 1 OF HOLES, HOW DOES LOUIS
SACHAR ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE IN THE NOVEL?
Engage = involve? Get
the attention of?
Engross? Take part in?
attract? Connect?
Absorb
IN CHAPTER 1 OF HOLES, HOW DOES LOUIS SACHAR ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE IN THE
NOVEL?
Statement (1st sentence):

How? = What
?
language techniques
are used?
In chapter 1 of Holes, Louis Sachar uses 2nd
person narrative, repetition of short sentences
and high modality to involve the audience.
Engage = involve? Get the attention of?
Engross? Take part in? attract?
Connect? Absorb
IN CHAPTER 1 OF HOLES, HOW DOES LOUIS SACHAR ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE IN THE NOVEL?
A quote from the text… written word-for-word
from the text – with ?speech marks at the
beginning and end of the quote
Prove your statement with evidence from the text…
(2nd sentence of your paragraph…)
In chapter 1,Sachar writes, “that’s the
worst thing that can happen to you, you
die a slow, painful death”.
IN CHAPTER 1 OF HOLES, HOW DOES LOUIS SACHAR ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE IN THE NOVEL?
1.
2.
Connect the language techniques with the
evidence from the text…AND
explain the EFFECT of using the language
techniques. (3rd and 4th sentences of your
paragraph…) in involving the audience.

The 2nd person narrative speaks directly to the
audience. The high modality of “worst” way
“you die a slow, painful death” positions the
readers to actually imagine themselves in the
novel’s action.
IN CHAPTER 1 OF HOLES, HOW DOES LOUIS SACHAR ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE IN THE NOVEL?
Link sentence: this is the last sentence of your
paragraph. It “links” your techniques +
evidence + effect back to the question

The effective use of the 2nd person narrative and
high modality, used by Sachar in the 1st chapter of
Holes, successfully engages the audience in the
novel.
NOW… PUT ALL THE STEPS TOGETHER TO FORM
THE COMPLETE PARAGRAPH 
In chapter 1 of Holes, Louis Sachar uses 2nd person narrative,
repetition of short sentences and high modality to involve the
audience. In chapter 1,Sachar writes, “that’s the worst thing that
can happen to you, you die a slow, painful death”. The 2nd
person narrative speaks directly to the audience. The high
modality of “worst” way “you die a slow, painful death” positions
the readers to actually imagine themselves in the novel’s action.
The effective use of the 2nd person narrative and high modality,
used by Sachar in the 1st chapter of Holes, successfully engages
the audience in the novel.

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