“Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health” ("Obesity." Wikipedia) In the United States (Gould 2012): • 2 out of every 3 adults In Germany (English 2011) : • 13.7% of adults are (62%) are overweight obese or obese • 36.4% are overweight • Obesity-related illness treatments cost an Moderate obesity reduces estimated $190.2 life expectancy by about 3 billion years. Severe obesity can shorten a person’s life by 10 years. (University of Oxford, 2009) 1983 Hoffmann-La Roche & Co., Switzerland First developed to control harmful chemicals in the pancreas Your stomach and intestine have enzymes, called lipases, that break down fat into smaller molecules, which are then absorbed from your digestive tract. Orlistat binds to lipases keeps them from digesting the eaten fat 30% of the fat eaten is blocked (Orlistat) Undigested fat is passed out in feces Dose is 3 tablets daily, lasts 12 hours, and can be taken for 1-2 years. Longer if necessary. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrfO9hS40jA Orlistat reduces body weight by an average of 5-10%. The greatest rate of weight loss occurs within the first six months of treatment. Not more weight is lost over 2 years because only 30% of the fat is blocked. Exercise must be included in the weight loss plan Losing fat faster can actually be unhealthy (Orlistat) Unknown A study found that patients taking Orlistat lost more weight than those on a placebo: ~9kg versus 6kg. (Davidson 1999) Research studies showed that people taking Orlistat • had a 60% reduction in the absorption of Vitamin E (Melia 1996) • displayed “vitamin D levels that were significantly reduced” (McDuffie 2002) Of those sampled who were taking Orlistat and no vitamin supplement (Xenical Indications and Usage): • 12% developed a low level of Vitamin D • 5.8% developed a low level of Vitamin E Vitamin D and Vitamin A are absorbed with the fat that you eat Studies indicate that Orlistat prevents your body from absorbing fat and therefore also vitamins D and E People taking Orlistat were recommended by their doctors to also take Vitamin supplements 2 hours before or 2 hours after the use of Orlistat to offset the effects of vitamin loss. Vitamins D helps your body absorb calcium used in making bone. The use of Orlistat could lead to softer bones that may be more prone to breaking. Vitamin E helps maintain a healthy immune system, protects cells from antioxidants, and helps produce blood cells. The use of Orlistat could lead to a weaker immune system. Resources •"Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD." WebMD, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/drugs/drug-6152-cholecalciferol vitamin D3 Oral.aspx?drugid=6152>. •Davidson, Michael H., PhD. "Weight Control and Risk Factor Reduction in Obese Subjects Treated for 2 Years With Orlistat." American Medical Association, 20 Jan. 1999. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=188381>. •English, Cythnthia, and Nicolas Scharioth. "Half of Germans Are Obese and Overweight." Half of Germans Are Obese and Overweight. Gallup, 27 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.gallup.com/poll/150359/half-germans-obeseoverweight.aspx>. •Galland, Leo, Dr. "Solving America's Obesity Crisis." Health. The Christian Broadcasting Network, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cbn.com/health/weightloss/fatresistance_galland.aspx>. •Gould, Danielle. "A Systems Approach to Solving America's Obesity Problem." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 11 May 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/daniellegould/2012/05/11/a-systems-approach-tosolving-americas-obesity-problem/>. • McDuffie, J. R. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2002. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12126214>. • Melia, A. T., and S. G. Koss-Twardy. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 1996. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8844448>. • "Obesity." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 May 2014. Web. 07 Aug. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity> • "Obesity Update 2012." Obesity Update 2012. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, n.d.Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.oecd.org/health/49716427.pdf>. • "Orlistat." Orlistat. EMedTV, n.d.Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://weightloss.emedtv.com/orlistat/orlistat.html>. Resources •"Orlistat (Xenical)." - EMedExpert.com, 25 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.emedexpert.com/facts/orlistat-facts.shtml>. •"Overweight and Obesity - BMI Statistics." Overweight and Obesity - BMI Statistics. European Commission, Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Overweight_and_o besity_-_BMI_statistics>. •"Patient.co.uk - Trusted Medical Information and Support." Patient.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Orlistat-Help-With-WeightLoss.htm>. •"Possible Interactions With: Vitamin D." University of Maryland Medical Center, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-d-000995.htm>. •Traister, Jeffrey. "Drug Interactions With Vitamin D Supplements." LIVESTRONG.COM, 22 Oct. 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/286589-druginteractions-with-vitamin-d-supplements/>. Resources •University of Oxford. "Moderate Obesity Takes Years Off Life Expectancy." ScienceDaily, 20 Mar. 2009. Web. 07 Aug. 2014. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090319224823.htm>. •"Xenical Indications and Usage." Xenical Indications, Contraindications and Warnings. Pharmcom, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pharmcom.com/xenical_indications.html>. •"Xenical (Orlistat) Cost." Generic Xenical (Orlistat 60/120mg) $1.35 Pill. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.healthy-people.biz/buy-xenicalusa.html>.