Ch19-Motivation in Org

Report
Chapter 19
Motivation in Organizations
Learning Outcomes:
Motivation in Organizations
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Relate motivational programs for
organizations to the relevant motivational
theory.
Describe MBO.
Explain the significance of recognition
programs.
Sight the merits of quality circles.
Discuss the various variable pay programs.
Differentiate between profit sharing and gain
sharing.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
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© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Motivation in Organizations
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If you want to motivate people,
first think about their needs.
Knowing this, how would one go
about finding out what your
people’s needs are?
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
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© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Motivational Programs for
Organizations
Motivational Programs
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Theory
Management by
objectives
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Goal-setting theory
Recognition programs
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Positive reinforcement
Quality circles
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Participative management
Variable pay programs
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Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
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Expectancy theory and
Equity theory
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Management by Objectives
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MBO is a motivational program based
on goal setting. The goal(s) should:
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be mutually agreed upon.
be difficult, but achievable (realistic).
have a defined time frame.
be measurable (objective and budgeted).
provide means for feedback.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
5
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Linking MBO and Goal-Setting
Theory
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Goal-setting theory demonstrates that:
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hard goals result in a higher level of individual
performance.
specific hard goals, when accepted and
achievable, result in a higher level of
performance than do no goals or generalized
goals.
feedback, positive or negative, on one’s
performance leads to higher productivity.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
6
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Management by Objectives
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In an MBO program, good goals are
SMART goals:
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Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Results-oriented
Time-related
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
7
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Motivation in Organizations
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Recognition programs:
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recognition is one of the most powerful
workplace motivators.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
8
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Recognition Programs
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Employee recognition programs are
consistent with the reinforcement theory,
rewarding a behavior with recognition
immediately following that behavior is likely
to encourage its repetition.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
9
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Recognition Programs
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Employee recognition programs use
multiple sources and recognize both
individual and team accomplishments.
In contrast to most other motivators,
recognizing an employee’s superior
performance often costs little or no
money.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
10
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Merits of Quality Circles
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Quality circles or employee
involvement programs are forms of
participative management and are
good ways to get people involved.
People are motivated based on
their need to belong and socialize
with others.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
11
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Variable Pay in Organizations
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Key Point: Variable pay programs
convert fixed costs into variable costs.
Variable pay programs:
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piece work plans.
commission sales.
gain-sharing programs.
profit-sharing programs.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
12
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Variable-Pay Programs
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Evidence supports the linkage of variable pay
programs with the expectancy theory and the
equity theory, especially for operative
employees working under piece-rate systems.
Group and organization-wide incentives
reinforce and encourage employees to
sublimate personal goals for the best
interests of their department or organization.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
13
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Motivating Contingent
Workers
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There is no simple solution to motivating
contingent workers.
The greatest motivating factor is the
opportunity to gain permanent employment.
Motivation is also increased if the employee
sees that the job he or she is doing for the
organization can develop salable skills.
Some are motivated by the freedom and
work variety that temporary employment
provides.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
14
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Motivating the Professional
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The evidence shows professionals being
motivated by the work itself. The challenge
and problem-solving of the job provide the
incentive to perform at a higher level.
Professionals like the autonomy to follow
their interests and to structure their own
work.
Reward with educational opportunities.
Recognize their contributions.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
15
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Summary
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All of these programs start with the
needs of the people that one is trying
to motivate.
Learn their needs and then design
your motivational programs based on
these needs.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
16
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Summary
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Management by objectives (MBO) is
a motivational program based on the
goal-setting theory.
A goal that is difficult but achievable,
mutually agreed to, specific, and
provides feedback will provide
stronger motivation than an easy
goal such as “do your best.”
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
17
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Summary
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Recognition programs provide strong
motivational reinforcement in the workplace.
Quality circles are a form of participative
management based on the theory that
workers are more motivated if they can
participate in the decisions of the
organization.
Variable pay programs such as piece work,
gain-sharing and profit-sharing offer
incentives as a means to motivate workers.
Human Behavior in Organizations, 2nd Edition
Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee
18
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.

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