Segregation in the US Military

Report
Connor Richardson
25 November 2013
 History of segregation in wars
 Revolutionary War
 The War of 1812
 The Civil War
 World War I
 World War II
 Red Tails
 Executive Order 9981
 Korean War
 African Americans have fought in every war
 Poorly trained and equipped
 Returned home to worse conditions
 "Once let the black man get upon his person the brass
letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a
musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there
is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned
the right to citizenship.“
- Frederick Douglass
 13 Colonies vs. the British
Government
 African-Americans served on
both sides
 5000 black soldiers served with
whites in the Continental Army
 Due to a shortage of men,
General Washington lifted the
ban on black enlistment in the
Continental Army
 U.S. Declared war on Great Britain:
 Economic blockade of France
 Induction of neutral American seamen into the British Royal Navy
against their will
 Supported Indian tribes along the Great Lakes frontier
 Many African Americans fought in the U.S. military
 26th infantry division
 Sailors in the navy
 Fought between the North and South U.S.
 States' rights versus federal authority
 Westward expansion
 Slavery
 Blacks assigned to non-combat roles and
led by white
 180,000 African Americans comprising 163
units served in the Union Army
 Only two recorded units from the
Confederate Army
 First black received the Medal of Honor
Sgt. Major Christian Fleetwood
 Still Completely segregated –
yet many African Americans
volunteered
 More than 350,000 served –
Most were non-combat
 The Great Migration
 500,000 African Americans
moved North
 Social, economic, and
political challenges
 Fought with integrated British
soldiers
 Contradiction of fighting against
Nazi Germany with a segregated
military
 Experimented with integrated
troops near the end of the war as a
result of the Battle of the Bulge
 U.S. fought for freedoms
 African Americans faced
segregation, violence, and could
not vote
 A. Philip Randolph fought for the African Americans to




become pilots
Tuskegee Institute – Flight school for African Americans
Tuskegee Experience – Army Air Corps program to become
pilots and mechanics
First African American military aviators
Only fighter escort to never lose a bomber to enemy action
 President Truman established the Committee on Civil
Rights in 1946
 Documented violations and racial violence
 African American soldiers served in a racist environment
 Urged Truman to end racism
 African Americans would refuse to serve
 26 July 1948 – President Truman signed the order
 Rid the military of discrimination against race, color,
religion, or national origin
 “It is hereby declared to be the policy of the
President that there shall be equality of treatment
and opportunity for all persons in the armed
services without regard to race, color, religion or
national origin. This policy shall be put into effect
as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time
required to effectuate any necessary changes
without impairing efficiency or morale."
 Served in all combat units
 100,000 on active duty at
beginning
 Over 600,000 served by the end
 Last all-black unit was
disbanded
 Blacks served in command
positions
 Around 5,000 died in combat
 Many chose to stay in the
military after the war
Jesse L. Brown
1775-1783
Revolutionary War
1861-1865
The Civil War
1939-1945
World War II
1950-1953
Korean War
Civil Rights
Movement
1812-1814
War of 1812
1914-1918
World War I
1948
Executive Order 9981
 History of segregation in wars
 Revolutionary War
 The War of 1812
 The Civil War
 World War I
 World War II
 Red Tails
 Executive Order 9981
 Korean War

"A Brief History." Tuskegee Airmen Inc RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://tuskegeeairmen.org/explore-tai/a-brief-history/>.

"African Americans in the Korean War." NEW JERSEY KOREAN WAR VETERANS MEMORIAL. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nj.gov/military/korea/factsheets/afroamer.html>.

"African-American Soldiers in the Civil War." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 17
Nov. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/african-american-soldiers-in-the-civil-war>.

"American Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution>.

McGrath, Jane. "Why Was Executive Order No. 9981 so Important?" HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web.
17 Nov. 2013. <http://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/executive-order-99812.htm>.

Vox, Lisa. "Executive Order 9981." About.com African-American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/civilrightsstruggle1/a/order9981.htm>.

Weidman, Budge. "Teaching With Documents:The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil
War." Black Soldiers in the Civil War. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/>.

Williams, Chad. "African Americans and World War I." African Americans and World War I. N.p., n.d.
Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://exhibitions.nypl.org/africanaage/essay-world-war-i.html>.

"World War I." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i>.

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