Greek 1001 Elementary Greek

Report
Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
Beginning Greek
as taught at
Louisiana State University
Spring 2013
Albert Watanabe
Unit 12: Adjectives
Elementary Greek
This class (someday, Month ##, 2013)
AGE Unit 12: Adjectives
• You have already learned Greek nouns and pronouns.
• This Unit presents a closely-related category of word,
the adjective.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. In order to
describe a noun, an adjective must match the noun in
gender, number and case.
• Recall that Greek nouns and pronouns are identified by their gender,
number and case. Remember, too, that Greek pronouns replace nouns
by matching their gender, number and case.
• Like the definite article and pronouns, therefore, adjectives
must have forms available for each possible combination
of gender, number and case.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• All Greek adjectives use the same three declensions of
endings as Greek nouns.
• Every adjective uses a specific declension’s ending for
each gender.
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they use
for the different genders.
• For example, some adjectives use 2nd declension endings
for all three genders:
– When modifying a masculine or feminine noun, these adjectives
use the same endings as a regular 2nd declension noun.
– When modifying a neuter noun, these adjectives use the same
endings as a neuter 2nd declension noun.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives: Vocabulary
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
• In a vocabulary entry or lexicon, adjectives will have all
their nominative singular forms. The ending of the
nominative singular indicates which declension the
adjective uses for each gender.
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἄδικος -ον unjust
ἀδύνατος -ον impossible
βάρβαρος -ον barbaric, not Greek, foreign
σύμμαχος -ον allied
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
• αἰώνιος –ον eternal
• ἁμαρτωλός -όν sinful
• ἔρημος –ον deserted
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
• The largest and most common type of adjective uses
2nd declension endings for masculine and neuter
but 1st declension endings for the feminine:
– When modifying a masculine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 2nd declension noun.
– When modifying a feminine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 1st declension noun.
– When modifying a neuter noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a neuter 2nd declension noun.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
• The largest and most common type of adjective uses
2nd declension endings for masculine and neuter
but 1st declension endings for feminine:
– When modifying a feminine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 1st declension noun.
– NOTE: If the stem of the adjective ends in -ε, -ι or -ρ, just as
1st declension nouns, the singular forms change the -η- to -ᾱ-.
This change has no meaning. It is just a shift in pronunciation
(and consequently spelling).
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Two very common adjectives are of this type but show
additional small changes:
• μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big
– The masculine nominative and accusative singular drop their -λο-.
• πολύς, πολλή, πολύ much, many
• The masculine and neuter, nominative and accusative singular,
show the stem πολυ-.
Elementary Greek
• Greek Adjectives
μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα (stem: μεγαλ-) big
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Singular
Plural
Nom. μέγας μεγάλη μέγα
μεγάλοι μεγάλαι μεγάλα
Gen. μεγάλου μεγάλης μεγάλου
μεγάλων
Dat. μεγάλῳ μεγάλῃ μεγάλῳ
μεγάλοις μεγάλαις μεγάλοις
Acc. μέγαν μεγάλην μέγα
μεγάλους μεγάλας μεγάλα
Greek Pronouns
GPH p.34
Elementary Greek
• Greek Adjectives
πολύς, πολλή, πολύ (stem: πολλ-) much, many
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Singular
Plural
Nom. πολύς πολλή πολύ
πολλοί πολλαί πολλά
Gen. πολλοῦ πολλῆς πολλοῦ
πολλῶν
Dat. πολλῷ πολλῇ πολλῷ πολλοῖς πολλαῖς πολλοῖς
Acc. πολύν πολλήν πολύ πολλούς πολλάς πολλά
Greek Pronouns
GPH p.33
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἀγαθός -ή -όν good, brave, noble
αἰσχρός -ά -όν ugly, disgraceful
αἴτιος -α -ον responsible, guilty
ἄλλος -η -ον other
ἀμφότερος -α -ον both
ἄξιος -α -ον worthy
ἄριστος -η -ον best
δεινός -ή -όν awesome, terrible
δῆλος -η -ον clear, visible
δίκαιος -α -ον just
δυνατός -ή -όν able
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἕκαστος -η -ον each
ἑκάτερος -α -ον each of two
ἐκεῖνος -η -ο that
ἐλεύθερος -α -ον free
ἐμός -ή -όν my, mine
ἐναντίος -α -ον opposite
ἕτερος -α -ον other
ἐχθρός -ά -όν hated, hostile
ἡμέτερος -α -ον our
θεῖος -α -ον divine
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἴδιος -α -ον one’s own, private
ἱερός -ά -όν holy, sacred
ἱκανός -ή -όν sufficient
ἴσος -η -ον equal to (+ dat.)
ἰσχυρός -ά -όν strong
κακός -ή -όν bad, cowardly
καλός -ή -όν beautiful, noble
κοινός -ή -όν common
λαμπρός -ά -όν bright, brilliant, famous
λοιπός -ή -όν remaining
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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μακρός -ά -όν long, tall, large
μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big
μέσος -η -ον middle
μικρός -ά -όν small, little, short
μόνος -η -ον alone, single
μυρίος -α -ον countless thousands
νέος -α -ον young, new
οἰκεῖος -α -ον domestic, one’s own
ὀλίγος -η -ον few, little, small
ὅλος -η -ον whole, complete
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ὅμοιος -α -ον like, resembling
ὀρθός -ή -όν straight, true, regular
παλαιός -ά -όν old
πλεῖστος -η -ον most, largest
ποῖος -α -ον what sort of?
πολέμιος -α -ον hostile
πολύς, πολλή, πολύ much, many
πονηρός -ά -όν worthless, bad
πότερος -α -ον which of the two?
πρότερος -α -ον before, earlier
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ῥᾴδιος -α -ον easy
σός -ή -όν your, yours (sing.)
σοφός -ή -όν wise
ὑμέτερος -α -ον your, yours (pl.)
ὕστερος -α -ον following, next, later
φανερός -ά -όν clear, evident
φίλος -η -ον beloved, dear
χαλεπός -ή -όν difficult
χαλκοῦς -ῆ -οῦν bronze
χρήσιμος -η -ον useful
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
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ἀγηπατός –η –όν beloved
ἅγιος –α –ον holy
ἄλλος -η -ον other
ἄξιος -α -ον worthy
δεξιός –η –όν right
δοῦλος –η –ον as a slave
δυνατός -ή -όν able
ἕκαστος -η -ον each
ἐκεῖνος -η -ο that
ἔσχατος –η –ον last, final
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
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ἕτερος -α -ον other
ἐχθρός -ά -όν hated, hostile
ἴδιος -α -ον one’s own, private
ἱκανός -ή -όν sufficient
καινός –ή –όν new
κακός -ή -όν bad, cowardly
καλός -ή -όν beautiful, noble
λοιπός -ή -όν remaining
μακάριος –α –ον blessed
μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big
μέσος -η -ον middle
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
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μικρός -ά -όν small, little, short
μόνος -η -ον alone, single
νεκρός –ά –όν dead
ὀλίγος -η -ον few, little, small
ὅλος -η -ον whole, complete
ὅμοιος -α -ον like, resembling
πιστός –ή –όν faithful
ποῖος -α -ον what sort of?
πολύς, πολλή, πολύ much, many
πονηρός -ά -όν worthless, bad
πρεσβυτέρος –α –ον elder
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they use
for the different genders.
• A small group of adjectives uses 3rd declension endings
for all three genders:
– When modifying a masculine or feminine noun, these adjectives
use the same endings as a regular 3rd declension noun.
– When modifying a neuter noun, these adjectives use the same
endings as a neuter 3rd declension noun.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
ἀληθής -ές (stem: ἀληθέσ-) true
(contractions just as in ἔτος -ους τό year)
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Singular
Nom. ἀληθής ἀληθές
Gen.
ἀληθοῦς
Dat.
ἀληθεῖ
Acc. ἀληθῆ ἀληθές
Plural
ἀληθεῖς ἀληθῆ
ἀληθῶν
ἀληθέσι
ἀληθεῖς ἀληθῆ
Greek Pronouns
(GPH p.20)
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
βελτίων -ον (stem: βελτίον-) better
(just as δαίμων -ονος ὁ divinity)
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Singular
Nom. βελτίων βέλτιον
Gen.
βελτίονος
Dat.
βελτίονι
Acc. βελτίονα βέλτιον
Greek Pronouns
(GPH p.28)
Plural
βελτίονες βελτίονα
βελτιόνων
βελτίοσι
βελτίονας βελτίονα
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἀληθής -ές true
ἀμείνων -ον better, stronger, braver
βελτίων -ον better
ἐλάττων -ον smaller, less
ἥττων -ον less, weaker
κρείττων -ον stronger, better
πλείων/πλέων, πλεῖον/πλέον more, larger
σαφής -ές clear
χείρων -ον worse, inferior
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
• [No specific adjective of this type occurs 30+ times in the NT,
but the type does occur.]
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
• Another group of adjectives uses
3rd declension endings for masculine and neuter
but 1st declension endings for feminine:
– When modifying a masculine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 3rd declension noun.
– When modifying a feminine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 1st declension noun always with a
short -ᾰ- in the nominative and accusative singular.
– When modifying a neuter noun, these adjectives use the same
endings as a neuter 3rd declension noun.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
• Greek adjectives differ only in which declension they
use for the different genders.
• Another group of adjectives uses
3rd declension endings for masculine and neuter
but 1st declension endings for feminine:
– When modifying a feminine noun, these adjectives use the
same endings as a regular 1st declension noun always with a
short -ᾰ- in the nominative and accusative singular.
– NOTE: If the stem of the adjective ends in -ε, -ι or -ρ, just as 1st
declension nouns, the singular forms change the -η- to -ᾱ-. For these
adjectives, the change affects only the Genitive and Dative singular,
since the Nominative and Accusative singular already have short -ᾰ-.
As always, this change has no meaning. It is just a shift in
pronunciation (and consequently spelling).
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives
ἡδύς -εῖα -ύ (stem: ἡδέ-) sweet
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Singular
Nom. ἡδύς ἡδεῖα ἡδύ
Gen. ἡδέος ἡδείας ἡδέος
Dat. ἡδεῖ ἡδείᾳ ἡδεῖ
Acc. ἡδύν ἡδεῖαν ἡδύ
Plural
ἡδεῖς ἡδεῖαι ἡδέα
ἡδέων ἡδειῶν ἡδέων
ἡδέσι ἡδείαις ἡδέσι
ἡδεῖς ἡδείας ἡδέα
Greek Pronouns
GPH p.30
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: Classical
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ἅπας -ᾶσα -αν all together
βαρύς -εῖα -ύ heavy, tedious
βραχύς -εῖα -ύ brief, short
εὐθύς -εῖα -ύ straight
ἡδύς -εῖα -ύ sweet
ὀξύς -εῖα -ύ sharp, keen, shrill, pungent
πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν every, all
ταχύς -εῖα -ύ quick
Elementary Greek
Unit 12 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)
• ἅπας -ᾶσα -αν all together
• εὐθύς -εῖα -ύ straight
• πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν every, all
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives: Usage
• Greek adjectives describe nouns when they are in the
attributive position:
• ὁ κακὸς βασιλεύς = the bad king
• ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ κακός = the bad king
• κακὸς βασιλεύς = a bad king
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives: Usage
• Outside the attributive position, Greek adjectives function
as predicate to the noun:
• ὁ βασιλεύς κακός. = The king (is) bad.
• αἱ θλίψεις ποιοῦσι τὸν βασιλέα κακόν.
= Troubles make the king bad.
Elementary Greek
Greek Adjectives: Usage
• Greek routinely uses adjectives with just an article as
generic nouns (i.e., nouns indicating a class or type):
• ὁ κακός = a bad man, a bad person
• οἱ κακοί = bad people
• τὸ κακόν = “the bad,” badness, etc.
– cf. the abstract noun κακία –ας ἡ which refers to the concept of
“badness.”
Elementary Greek
• Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013)
– Unit 12 Biblical reading.
– Unit 12 Classical reading.
– Be able to:
• read the sentences aloud
• parse each verb, noun and pronoun
• translate the sentences into English.

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