Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic Fracturing

Report
Hydraulic Fracturing in
the United States
By: Caryn Massey, Molly Groyer,
Greg Branson, Armand
Massimini, Yu Hao, Ying Wang,
Junjie, WeiQiao Lin
1
Introduction
 Hydraulic Fracturing: The forcing open of
fissures in subterranean rocks by introducing
liquid at high pressure, esp. to extract oil or
gas
 Advantages and disadvantages to Hydraulic
Fracturing
 How Hydraulic Fracturing Affects the
Environment
 How Hydraulic Fracturing Affects the
Economy
 Case Studies of Hydraulic Fracturing
 Suggestions for Future Use
2
Literature Review
 Gas is one of the major sources of heating and other
energy needs
 ¼ energy use in the United States
 Concern for effects of Fracking Method
 Fracking Developed in the 1940s, recently became a
popular method for extraction of Natural Gas
3
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Hydraulic Fracturing
Advantages
Disadvantages
Increase in production of
natural gas
Water contamination of
chemicals
Increase in economic
activities
Ingredients for fracking
process unknown to public
Price for drilling natural gas
low
Major health concerns for
people that live nearby
drilling
4
How Hydraulic Fracturing
Affects the Environment
5
Hazardous Chemicals in the Fracking
Process
Fracturing fluid
Sand-carrying fluid
Displacing liquid
Benzene, ethyl benzene,
toluene and xylene
6
Hydraulic Fracturing Impact on Water,
Landscaping, and Earthquakes
Pollute the underground water
Consume large amounts of groundwater
Radioactive pollution
Traffic and noise pollution
Injection of fluids into deep wells
Use of reservoirs for water supplies
http://youtu.be/4LBjSXWQRV8
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How Hydraulic Fracturing Affects the
Economy
 Most efficient way to pump natural gas from the ground
 Oil price increased from $20 per barrel in 2002 to over $100
per barrel now. But natural gas is currently at 2002 prices.
 An abundant supply of natural gas makes prices relatively
cheap to producers and consumers
 Decreases exploitation cost and increase the benefit of
producers.
 Good have increase number of medical bills from people
that get sick from drinking fracked-contaminated water
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Case Studies of Hydraulic Fracturing
 In 1987, an E.P.A. report was published that
indicated fracture fluid invasion into James
Parson's water well in Jackson County, West
Virginia
 Earthquakes in United Kingdom Canada, and Japan
have been linked to Hydraulic Fracturing
9
Suggestions for the Future
 Many short-term and long-term concerns that related to
human health, environmental health, and economic
health
 While fracking decreases the amount of carbon dioxide
emitted into the air, the environmental impacts on the
landscapes and water are vast
 Serious health-implications for people that work on
fracking drilling sites as well as people that live in
surrounding areas.
 Consider looking into renewable energy sources as well
as exploring safer means of extracting natural gas
10
Sources
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Gosden, E., Chan, S. P. (2013). Centrica strikes £10bn deal that could see us shale gas supply uk
homes. Telegraph.co.uk, Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/
9951840/Centrica-strikes-10bn-deal-that-could-see-US-shale-gas-supply-UK-homes.html
Geman, B. (2013). Study: Fracked gas far more climate-friendly than coal read more. The Hill, Retrieved
from http://thehill.com/blogs/e2-wire/e2-wire/294995-study-fracked-gas-far-more-climate-friendly-than-coal
Heywood, P. (2012). Fracking safer and greener?. TCE: The Chemical Engineer, 42-45.
Jones, S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/10/28/163823839/swedenwants-your-trash
Liang, F., Sayeed, S., Ryvak, M., & Zhao, N. (2012). The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the
near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive
alternatives. Chemistry Central Journal, 6, 1-4.
Osborn, S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100993/
OSHA.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/dts/hazardalerts/hydraulic_frac_hazard_alert.html
Schemmer, J. (2013). Avoidable "fraccident": An argument against strict liability
for hydraulic fracturing. 1215-1257. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http:/
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(2013). Don't count on cheap fracked gas. Climate Rocks, Retrieved from http://climatecrocks.com/2013/
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