seeds and seedlings spring 2013 class

Report
SEEDS AND
SEEDLINGS
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
 HYBRID VERSUS HEIRLOOM
 GMOs
 WHAT SEEDS DO I START?!?
 SEED GERMINATION
 PRETREATING SEEDS
 STARTING SEEDS INDOOR
 RAISING HEALTHY SEEDLINGS
 STARTING SEEDS OUTDOORS
 SAVING SEEDS
 TROUBLESHOOTING
Hybrid versus Heirloom
 Hybrids
 Result from controlled cross-pollination
 The goal is to produce a plant with the most desirable
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characteristics from both parent plants
Parents of hybrid seeds MUST breed true to ensure the
hybrid cross can be repeated reliably (must be
homozygous for desirable traits)
Hybrids are typically more uniform, have higher yields,
and show greater resistance to unfavorable conditions
compared to heirlooms
It is not recommended to save seed from hybrid
varieties as they will likely not produce similar offspring
Hybrids repeatedly selected and grown have the
potential to stabilize after many years
Some Fun Hybrids
Pluot: a hybrid
between a plum and
apricot (both members
of the Prunus genus)
also includes: apriums,
apriplums, or
plumcots. Collectively
these are called
interspecific plums.
Plumcot
Tangelo: a hybrid between a
tangerine and a grapefruit or
pomelo (members of the
Citrus genus)
Tayberry: a hybrid between a
blackberry and red raspberry
(members of the Rubus genus)
Some Non-Hybrids
The Grapple is NOT a hybrid between
a grape and an apple. Because these
two fruits belong to different plant
families (Rosaceae for apples and
Vitaceae for grapes), they CANNOT
be combined by classical breeding or
grafting techniques. The Grapple is
simply a Fuji apple that has been
soaked in a concentrated solution of
natural and artificial Concord grape
flavor and water.
The TomTato is NOT a hybrid,
but rather a grafted plant
consisting of a tomato plant on
the upper portion (scion) and a
potato plant on the lower
portion (rootstock). These plants
can be grafted because they are
in the same family, Solanaceae,
or the nightshade family.
Hybrid versus Heirloom
 Heirlooms
 Open pollinated - pollination by insects, birds, wind, or other
natural mechanisms
 Some plants cross-pollinate so these plants need to be isolated
if trying to save seed
 Plants like beans, lettuce, and peas are self-pollinating so these
seeds can be more reliably saved without having to isolate
 The “pure breeds”
 Varieties that have been around for at least 50 years, and
have been preserved and kept true in a particular region
 Often have superior flavor, color, and/or texture but lack the
holding ability, disease resistance, early maturity, etc., that
would make them commercially viable.
 Recommended for seed saving
 Can produce a “mixed bag” harvest; genetic drift occurs over
time so remove any plants that deviate too far from the
standard
Some Well Known Heirlooms
‘Kentucky Wonder’
Pole Bean
‘Black Seeded Simpson’
Lettuce
‘Scarlet Nantes’
Carrot
‘California Wonder’ Pepper
‘Black Beauty’ Eggplant
‘Brandywine’ Tomato
GMOs (Specifically GM Crops)
 Genetically Modified Organisms: plants or animals that
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have been genetically engineered with DNA from bacteria,
viruses or other plants and animals. These combinations of
genes from different species cannot occur in nature or in
traditional crossbreeding (AKA Frankenfoods)
Many crops have been genetically modified to include
genes that enhance traits such as herbicide resistance
(Roundup Ready), and/or pest resistance (Bt corn)
Much controversy about environmental repercussions,
health implications, legal issues specifically dealing with
patent infringement, etc.
GMOs ARE NOT the same as crops that have been
modified through classical breeding techniques
Many countries are banning the growing and selling of GM
plants and animals
Recent polls suggest that the majority of Americans want
GM foods to be labeled
The Non-GMO Project is North America’s only third party
verification and labeling for non-GMO food and products.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
WHAT SEEDS DO I START WITH?
READ DIRECTIONS ON BACK!!!! VERY
IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHETHER THEY
SHOULD BE PLANTED STRAIGHT IN THE
GROUND OR IN A PLANTNG TRAY. WHAT IS
RECOMMENDED…..
NO GMO AND ORGANIC SEEDS!!!!
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
1) SEED GERMINATION
MOISTURE AND WARMTH
SEEDS DO NOT NEED NITROGEN TO GERMINATE THEY
ARE PACKED WITH THEIR OWN GROWTH HORMONES.
C. MOST GARDEN SEEDS GERMINAE AT 75-90 DEGREES F.
D. AIR- DO NOT PACK THE SOIL
E. EVENLY MOIST SOIL-NOT SOGGY
F. CONTINUE TO GIVE THE SEEDLINGS MOISTURE,
WARMTH, AIR AND LIGHT IT KEEPS GROWING.
G. MOST SEEDS DO NOT NEED ANY SPECIAL LIGHTING.
A.
B.
a)
CHECK THE SEED PACKET FOR ANY SPECIAL
GERMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHTING.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
2) PRETREATING SEEDS
A. PRE-GERMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOME
SEEDS. INATE DORMANCY = HELPS ENSURE
SURVIVAL IN NATURE WHILE THEY WAIT OUT THE
WINTER OR DRY SEASON BEFORE SPROUTING.
B. STRATIFICATION OR COLD PERIOD. EXAMPLE:
FRUIT TREE SEEDS. 90 DAYS OF COLD!!!!
C. PRESOAKING
a)
b)
CHEMICAL COATS THAT NEED SOAKED AWAY.
(SLOW TO SOAK)
JUST HELPS TO GERMINATE FASTER
D. SCARIFICATION- SEEDS WITH THICK COAT MAKE A
NICK IN SEED COAT.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
3) STARTING SEEDS INDOORS
A.
YOUR EQUIPMENT:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
B.
SEED STARTING CONTAINER
STARTING MEDIUM OR SOIL MIX
WATERING CAN AND SPRAY BOTTLE
LABELS
MARKING PEN
SEED PACKETS
CALENDAR!!!!!!!!
STEP BY STEP TRAY MAKE-UP
a)
b)
c)
d)
FILL TRAY
SOAK TRAY (WAIT A FEW MINUTES TO DRAIN)
PLANT SEEDS AND MIST
COVER WITH DOME IF NEEDED
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
4) RAISING HEALTHY SEEDS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
LIGHT
TEMPERATURE
VENTILATION (AS SOON AS SEEDS SPROUT)
FERTILIZER (AFTER TRUE-LEAVES SET)
TRANSPLANTING
PLANTING OUT
a)
HARDENED-OFF
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
WIND
STRONG SUN
COLD AIR
VARYING TEMPERATURES
SEEDS AND SEEDLING
5) STARTING SEEDS OUTDOORS
A.
B.
C.
D.
AMMEND SOIL FIRST (IF NEEDED)
READ DIRECTIONS ON PACKAGE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
LAST FROST DATE
LOOK AT YOUR LOCAL ACCREDITED
SOURCES!!! OSU RECCOMENDED FOR DATES
ON PLANTING!
SEED SEEDLINGS
6) SAVING SEEDS
A. PLACE YOUR SAVED SEEDS IN A SEALED
CONTAINER IN A DARK, DRY, AND COOL
LOCATION. (EXAMPLE: MASON JAR IN
KITCHEN CABINET)
B. WHAT YOU DO NOT USE NOW, YOU CAN USE
IN FALL OR NEXT SPRING!
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS
 TROUBLESHOOTING
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IF YOUR SEEDS FAIL TO GERMINATE OR IF ONLY A FEW SPROUT, IT IS
PROBABLY DUE TO ONE OR MORE OF THESE FACTORS:
 OLD SEED THAT IS NO LONGER VIABLE.
 SEEDS PRODUCED UNDER POOR GROWING CONDITIONS AND IS NOT
VIABLE.
 SEED THAT IS DAMAGED.
 TO MUCH OR NOT ENOUGH MOISTURE.
 TEMPERATURE TO HIGH OR TO LOW.
 GERMINATION-INHIBITED SUBSTANCE IN THE SOIL (HERBICIDE
RESIDUES, FOR EXAMPLE) OR HIGH SALT CONTENT.
 TOP WATERING OR HEAVY RAIN WASHED SEEDS OUT OF SOIL MIX OR
COVERED OR COVERED THEM TO DEEPLY TO START WITH.
 DAMPING-OFF DISEASE
 SEEDS NOT IN GOOD CONTACT WITH SOIL.
 LACK OF LIGHT OR LACK OF DARKNESS FOR SEEDS THAT NEED THESE
FOR GERMINATION.
 DORMANCY REQUIREMENT NOT MET……
Upcoming Classes
 February
 8th – Pruning and Prepping for Spring (1:00pm)
 15th – Composting and Vermicomposting (1:00pm)
 22nd – Native Plants and Kids Class Making Pinecone
Feeders (1:00pm)
 March
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1st – Cool Season Crops and Creative Design (1:00pm)
8th – Backyard Chickens (1:00pm)
15th – Bee-nificials! (1:00pm)
22nd – Everything About Edibles
29th – Kids Class! Insects, composting, recycling, etc.
Get the full list at www.groggsgreenbarn.com

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