### Module 2 Slide deck: Lessons in using (and misusing

MODULE 4 SLIDE DECK:
PRESENTING DATA
GRAPHICALLY AND WRITING
AN EMPIRICAL REPORT
Using Publicly Available Data to Engage IV-E Students in Research and Statistics:
Instructional Modules
Instructor Notes for Module 4

This module transitions students from an initial exposure to
California’s child welfare data (Modules 1 & 2), a
consideration of answerable research questions relevant to
county child welfare agencies, and the drafting of a structured
abstract (Module 3), to experience with actual data analyses
and research reporting. Its purpose is to:
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Promote student understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of
different methods for visualizing and presenting data
welfare data
Help students to think very concretely about the product of their
research analysis by drafting a structured research report in the context
of child welfare social work practice/policy.
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
2
Module 4, Section 1
Presenting and Visualizing Data
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
Charting Basics

Keep it simple
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Use consistent/clean color themes when possible
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Tables and charts should be self-explanatory
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“minimize the ink to data ratio”
what is the story you wish to tell?
Time should always be shown chronologically (i.e., left to
right)
Charts should summarize relationships not easily shown in
tables
Sort data by a meaningful relationship

rare that alphabetizing is useful
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
4
Starting with bad…the worst pie chart ever
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
5
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
6
Improvement…
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
7
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
8
Improvement…
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
9
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
10
Improvement…
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
11
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
12
“Chart Junk” (1)
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
13
“Chart Junk” (2)
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
14
Avoid comparisons across pie charts…
Racial Composition of
Child Population in
California
Racial Composition of
Children with Allegations
of Maltreatment
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
15
Stacked bar – can be useful for
showing changes in proportions
16
Avoid comparisons across pie charts
(part 2)…
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
17
Simple stacked bar is often better…
50%
2007
40%
2008
30%
20%
10%
0%
Not
Employed
Part
Time
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
Full Time
Minimum Wage
Full Time above
Minimum
18
Sort by a meaningful variable
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
19
Keep it simple
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
20
Make it self-explanatory
21
Difficulties in scaling…be wary of second
y-axis
22
3 dimensional charts?
23
Strengths? Weaknesses?
Slide Source: Klass, G.M. (2011). Just Plain Data Analysis:
Second Edition Charts. Illinois State University.
24
SF county slide: how might it be improved?
Historical and Projected Investigation Assignments
2005-2011
350
May
292
300
286
250
200
July
150
183
133
100
50
FORECAST
0
Jan-05
Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Source: CWS/CMS
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
25
Online…one comedian’s take on charts!
http://www.funnyordie.com/videos/62f250455c/deme
tri-martin-stand-up-presentation-from-demetri-martin
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
26
Module 4, Section 2
Writing an Analytic/Data Report
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
Report Outline/Development
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BASICS:
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Number and Title all Tables & Charts
Include Sub-sections (numbered and titled)
Cite all sources in correctly formatted References
USE COMMON SENSE
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Present Data in a Logical Order
Address Research Questions to reach study objectives
Be CLEAR, CONCISE, and OBJECTIVE
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Report Components
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Title Page
Structured Abstract (completed in Module 3!)
Background / Problem Statement / Introduction
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Agency Description
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Use the language you prefer
Methodology
Results / Findings
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If appropriate
Background / Review of Literature
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Use the language you prefer
Use the language you prefer
Discussion
References
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Background/Problem Statement/Introduction

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Include “Study Objective” or Study Purpose
Describe the Child Welfare agency or
Include Research Questions that will help
reach the objectives of your study
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Background or Review of Literature
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Explain
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WHY are you pursuing your research project?
WHY are you using specific variables, outcomes, etc.?
 WHAT literature base supports your decisions?
Use Recent Research & Literature
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Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Methodology
o DESCRIBE
 Data Source (s)
 Population or Sample
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Independent & Dependent Variables
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Specify years, grades, sample size, restrictions, etc.
Define these precisely
Study Design
Analysis
Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Results or Findings
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Provide FACTS (and just the facts!)
Present Data Findings
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Descriptive Statistics
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Embed data tables and charts in report
Inferential Statistics
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Module 4: Presenting Data Graphically and Writing an Empirical Report
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Discussion
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Do your findings align with existing research?
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What was learned about a population or sample?
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Any unexpected trends/absence of trends?
 possible explanations?
Discuss Limitations
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How are findings limited?
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data shortcomings? variable limitations? design problems?
Discuss Implications for Practice/Policy
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