Debunk diet myths

Report
By Erin McCarthy
Center for Lifestyle Medicine
Healthy Transitions 2013
 Diet
Myths
 The Truth about Myths
 How to identify a Myth
 Guidelines for your Health
 Resources/Questions
 Eating
late at night will cause you to gain
weight
 Superfoods are better for you
 Low-carb, high-protein diets are optimal for
weight loss
 All fats are BAD
 Brown sugar, honey, agave are better than
white sugar
 Foods can burn calories
 Carbohydrates

are bad for your health
& cause weight gain
 Skipping
meals can cause weight loss
 Foods speed up your metabolism
 “Natural” foods = better
 Non-GMO foods = healthier
 Gluten-free= healthier and better for you
Eating after 7 or 8 PM makes you gain weight
 It makes NO difference what time you eat.
What matters is how many calories you
consume vs how many you burn off through
activity over time.
The less fat you eat, the better
 Fat, when eaten in moderate amounts, is
important for our health and aids in weight
loss, helping to increase our feelings of
fullness.
Some foods make you burn calories
 Celery,
grapefruit, etc will NOT make you
burn calories and lose more weight.
“Negative” foods (foods that cause you to
burn off more calories than the calories you
get from eating the food) simply DO NOT
exist.
Carbohydrates are fattening—limit them
 No matter what food group you choose, if
you cut out the items from that group, you
will reduce your caloric intake and lose
weight.
Fruit
Vegetables
1 cup = 80
calories
20 grams
carbs
3-5 gm fiber
1 cup = 25
calories
5 grams
carbs
3 gm fiber
Whole
Grains
1 cup = 200220 calories
45 grams
carbs
5-10 gm fiber
Anyone can benefit from a gluten-free diet:
it gives you more energy & is antiinflammatory
Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in
which the body can’t digest gluten, a protein
found in wheat, rye and barley
If you don’t have a medical reason for
following a gluten-free diet there’s NO
benefit
1 slice Rudi’s gluten
free bread
1 slice Rudi 7-grain
bread
90 calories, 19 gram
carbs, 4 gm fat, 3 gm
sugar, 2 gm fiber
90 calories, 15 gram
carbs, 2 gm fat, 2 gm
sugar, 4 gm fiber
GLUTEN-FREE
UDI’S BEST BLEND (TAPIOCA &
POTATO STARCH, BROWN RICE
& TEFF FLOUR, MODIFIED
TAPIOCA STARCH), WATER,
NON-GMO VEGETABLE OIL
(CANOLA OR SUNFLOWER OR
SAFFLOWER), EGG WHITES,
EVAPORATED CANE JUICE,
TAPIOCA MALTODEXTRIN,
TAPIOCA SYRUP, YEAST, FLAX
SEED, XANTHAN GUM, SALT,
BAKING POWDER (SODIUM ACID
PYROPHOSPHATE, SODIUM
BICARBONATE, CORN STARCH,
MONOCALCIUM PHOSPHATE),
CULTURED CORN SYRUP SOLIDS
(NATURAL MOLD INHIBITOR),
DRY MOLASSES, ENZYMES
Sprouted Bread
Ingredients Organic Sprouted
Wheat, Organic Sprouted
Barley, Organic Sprouted
Millet, Organic Malted Barley,
Organic Sprouted Lentils,
Organic Sprouted Soybeans,
Organic Sprouted Spelt,
Filtered Water, Fresh Yeast,
Organic Wheat Gluten, Sea
Salt.
Fruit contains too much sugar—avoid it when
you are trying to lose weight
 One
medium-sized apple=14 gm of sugar
½ cup of spaghetti sauce with meat =
11 gm of sugar

1 cup low-fat fruit-flavored yogurt =
47 gm of sugar

1 McDonalds smoothie =
56 gm sugar

The combination of foods that you eat really
matters—for example, do not eat
carbohydrates and protein at the same
time
 The combinations of carbohydrates, fat, and
protein that you choose do not make any
difference in weight loss.
 The
thing that matters is how many calories
you consume vs. how many you expend
 What

is it?
Used to describe food with high nutrient or
phytochemical content that may confer health
benefits, with few properties considered to be
negative, such as being high in saturated fat or
artificial ingredients, food additives or
contaminants
 No
legal definition
 Berries
 Nuts
and seeds
 Dark green vegetables

Kale, greens, swiss chard, brussel sprouts
 Citrus
fruits,
 Fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines
 Others?
 The

term is misused
Example: seawood contains natural toxins & may
increase risk of cancer * liver damage
 Marketing
strategy
 Supplements work different from foods

Green tea extract vs green tea
 Do
not contain all of the nutrients needed in
life
 An
organism whose genetic material has been
altered using engineering techniques.

Include micro-organisms such as bacteria and
yeast, insects, plants, fish
 In
agriculture, genetically engineered crops
are created to possess desirable traits, such
as resistance to pests, herbicides, or harsh
environmental conditions,


Improved product shelf life
Increased nutritional value
What are the main issues of concern for human
health?
 Tendencies to provoke allergic reaction
(allergenicity), gene transfer and outcrossing
(movement of genes)
 No effects on human health have been shown as
a result of the consumption of such foods by the
general population in the countries where they
have been approved
 Future GM organisms are likely to include plants
with improved disease or drought resistance,
crops with increased nutrient levels, fish species
with enhanced growth characteristics and plants
or animals producing important proteins such as
vaccines

Source WHO 2012
 Emphasizes
fruits and vegetables, grains,
beans and legumes, and nuts, is rich in fiber,
vitamins and other nutrients.
 Vegetarians:




Eat fewer calories
Weigh less
Lower risk Heart Disease
Lower incidence of cancer



Red meat 4 ounces/day ↑ cancer risk 30%
Poultry, fish ↓
Iron, calcium deficiency, watch protein intake
Mayo Clinic 2012
 Substitute
protein-rich foods for meat in your
favorite recipes at least 1x/week:



Beans and legumes — great in casseroles and
salads
Vegetarian crumbles— a good substitute for meat
in burritos and tacos
Tofu — a perfect addition to stir-fry dishes
 Mediterranean

diet
Limits red meat and emphasizes fruits,
vegetables, legumes, whole grains and healthy
fats best for ↓ heart disease, fatty liver, weight
management
Eating late at night will cause you to gain
weight
Eating late at night, or at any particular time
of day, will not cause you to put on more
weight than what is normal for what you ate
and the activity you did.
What are you eating late at night???
It’s important to fast periodically, to
cleanse toxins from your body
 The
truth: Your body has its own elegantly
designed system for removing toxins—namely,
the liver, kidneys and spleen.
 There isn’t ANY evidence that not eating—or
consuming only juice—for any period of time
makes your organs do this job any better
1 cup orange juice
1 cup fresh fruit
0 grams fiber
4 grams fiber
26 grams carbs
21 gm sugar
20 grams carbs
15 gm sugar
110 calories
80 calories
 It’s
the amount of CALORIES that make you
gain or lose weight
 No
foods help you burn calories
 Pick
from healthy, whole foods: fruits,
vegetables, whole grains, lean protein

It doesn’t matter when you eat them or in what
order
 Nuts
are not fattening but watch the
calories!


Healthy fats vs unhealthy (bad) fats
¼ cup nuts = 180-200 calories
Organic doesn’t mean “Healthy”
 Eating organic fruits and vegetables can
lower exposure to pesticides, including for
children – but the amount measured from
conventionally grown produce was within
safety limits
 It’s not more nutritious
TIP: buy local produce that may be “organic”
and support local farmers
Conventional
Organic
Apply natural fertilizers, such as
manure or compost, to feed soil
and plants.
Spray pesticides from natural
Spray synthetic insecticides to
sources; use beneficial insects and
reduce pests and disease.
birds, mating disruption or traps
to reduce pests and disease.
Use environmentally-generated
Use synthetic herbicides to
plant-killing compounds; rotate
manage weeds.
crops, till, hand weed or mulch to
manage weeds.
Give animals organic feed and
allow them access to the
Give animals antibiotics, growth outdoors. Use preventive
hormones and medications to
measures — such as rotational
prevent disease and spur growth. grazing, a balanced diet and clean
housing — to help minimize
disease.
Apply chemical fertilizers to
promote plant growth.
 The
salt shaker is not the enemy… breads,
pasta and crackers can be
Top Sources of Sodium
in the Diet
Breads and rolls
Cold cuts and cured meats
Pizza
Poultry
Soups
Sandwiches
Cheese
Pasta dishes
Meat dishes
Snacks
 Sounds
too good to be true
 If your healthy professional has never
mentioned it
 On TV, radio, internet ads
 No research behind it


Valid resources
NO MD or RD
 Does
is make logical sense?
3


healthy meals per day
1-2 healthy snacks (<150-200 calories)
Fresh fruits, vegetables, lean protein, whole
grains, beans/legumes
 Do

not skip meals
Plan meals ahead
 Portion



Control
Measuring cups
Food scale
Pre-portioned foods
 Label


Calorie, Serving Size
Monitor for weight management
 Limit

Reading
high-calorie drinks
Juice, naked, energy, teas
 Exercise
for health, metabolism, weight
management, insulin resistance, heart health
 Ask your health care professional

Get support from family, friends
Tracking applications =
www.MyFitnessPal.com
#1
#1 LOOK AT CALORIES:
See how many calories are in each product.
Aim for around 300-400 calories/meal and 100-200 calories/snack
If you cannot pronounce the ingredients, pass
it up
 Apple pie is not a fruit
 If you stay away from “processed” foods you
are not necessarily eating healthier all the
time


(unless you grow your own food daily)
Eating all your pasta is not going to save any
starving children
 A moderate diet is a healthy diet
 Choose whole foods
 Count calories daily for the rest of your life!

 What


Barriers?
Short –term vs. Long-term
 Are



are your goals?
they Realistic ???
Start with small, realistic goals
I can exercise 10 minutes per day on my lunch
break 5x/week
1 mile walking per day
 Track
exercise: mapmywalk, Fitbit,
pedometer
 Northwestern

Center for Lifestyle Medicine (312-695-2300)
 Dietary

Guidelines for Americans
www.mypyramid.gov
 Pub

Med
www.pubmed.com
 American

Heart Association
www.americanheart.org
 American

Professionals
Dietetic Association
www.eatright.org

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