education providers - Suomen Toivo

Report
EDUCATION IN FINLAND
For the Greek Delegation
18 June 2013
Aapo Koukku
Counsellor of Education
Information and Financial Services
www.oph.fi/english
For education and learning
Finland in brief
• Independent since 1917
• Member of the European Union 1995
• Land area 338 145 km2
• 188 000 lakes, 76 000 islands
• Population 5.4 million (17 inhabitants / km2)
• Two official languages: Finnish (91.2%),
Swedish (5.5%)
• Sámi is the language of about 1 800 people
(official status in 3 municipalities)
• Religion: Lutheran (81.8%), orthodox
(1.1%), others (1.2%), no religious affiliation
(15.9%)
• Immigrants: 3,6 % of population
• GDP (PPP) per capita $ 37,990 (World Bank)
• Main exports: electronics, forest industry,
metal and engineering
2
Underlying educational understanding
“The objective of Finnish education and cultural policy is
to guarantee all people - irrespective of their ethnic origin,
background or wealth - equal opportunities and rights to
culture, free quality education, and prerequisites for full
citizenship. (---) All people must have equal access to
services of consistent quality. “ (Government Programme,
2011)
The goal for the Government is to make Finland the most
competent country in the world by 2020. (Education and
Research 2011-2016, A development plan. MoEC 2011)
For education and learning
Government’s five-year development
plan, Education and Research 2011-2016
aims to promote equality and quality in education
and support life-long learning, for example
• ECEC – administrative and legislative reform
• Reform of national time allocation and core
curricula in general education
• Efforts to reduce group size in basic education
• Cooperation and flexibility in upper secondary
education
• Educational guarantee as part of the crossadministrative Youth Guarantee
For education and learning
Specificities of the Finnish education system
Culture supportive of learning / support to teaching and learning
No inspections, no high-stakes testing or national examinations in
basic education
High-quality teachers, high status, professional respect, autonomy
in the class room
Compulsory education starts at 7, same for all, inclusive, flexible and
takes into account pupils’ individual needs, no streaming nor ability
grouping
Trust
Public funding
Free education
Decentralised
Central steering
Local decisions
Culture of education
Evolution
Co-operation
For education and learning
Finnish system is holistic and based on trust
Comparison between the Finnish and general western models
GENERAL WESTERN MODEL
THE FINNISH SYSTEM
Standardisation
Strict standards for schools, teachers and students to
guarantee the quality of outcomes.
Flexibility and diversity
School-based curriculum development, steering by
information and support.
Emphasis on literacy and numeracy
Basic skills in reading, writing, mathematics and
science as prime targets of education reform.
Emphasis on broad knowledge
Equal value to all aspects of individual growth and
learning: personality, morality, creativity, knowledge
and skills.
Consequential accountability
Evaluation by inspection.
Trust through professionalism
A culture of trust on teachers’ and headmasters’
professionalism in judging what is best for students
and in reporting of progress.
Source: Kupiainen, Hautamäki, Karjalainen: The FI education system and PISA, 2010.
For education and learning
no dead-ends in the system
Finnish Education System,
For education and learning
A
p
p
r
e
n
t
i
EARLY YEARS EDUCATION
AND CARE
c
e
s
h
i
p
IMMEDIATE CONTINUATION OF STUDIES 2011
SCHOOL LEAVERS
(BASIC
EDUCATION)
63 200 in total
GENERAL UPPER
SECONDARY
49,6% (2005: 53,3%)
VOCATIONAL UPPER
SECONDARY
41,2% (2005: 39,4%)
DID NOT CONTINUE IN
STUDIES LEADING TO A
QUALIFICATION OR DEGREE
9,1% (2005: 7,4%)
For education and learning
Administration and steering
Parliament
Regional:
Government
Ministry
of Education
and Culture
FNBE
For education and learning
Centres for
Economic
Development,
Transport and
the Environment
Regional State
Administrative
Agencies
Municipalities or
Federations of
Municipalities
(Education
providers)
Educational
institutions
Central steering vs local decisions
Local
Central
o Educational priorities
o Educational priorities o Local curricula
o Min. time allocation
o Alloc. of subsidies
o National core curricula o Class size
o Size of state subsidies o Recruitment
o Teacher ”evaluation”
o Quality assurance
For education and learning
A STEERING SYSTEM BUILT ON THE
PRINCIPLE OF TRUST

1.
2.
3.



Flexible and decentralised educational decisionmaking, guiding principles being
common values, goals and high expectations
central monitoring of the whole system and support
local implementation and responsibility
Far-reaching financial autonomy of local authorities
No inspection, national tests or ranking lists in basic
education
Focus on self-evaluation and cooperation, selfevaluation supported by national sample-based
evaluations that are used for the development of
education
For education and learning
Quality assurance based on steering, not
control
Mandatory self-evaluation: Education providers have a statutory duty
to evaluate their own activities.
National evaluations of learning outcomes based on samples, used
for development.
National evaluation bodies and activities to be merged into the
Finnish Centre for Evaluation of Education in 2014
Quality criteria a tool for local actors
Statistics, national and international evaluations as tools for
evidence-informed policy-making
No inspectorate or standardised tests prior to the Matriculation
Examination
For education and learning
IMPORTANT QUALITY INDICATORS





High academic achievement, equal learning outcomes
 PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009
Small between and within school differences
Low drop-out (0.3% in basic education, 2-3% in general education
and 9% in vocational upper secondary education)
Highly educated and motivated teachers
Effective use of resources
 Around 6 % of GDP goes to education
 190 school days per year, 4 - 7 hours per day in compulsory
education
 Moderate amount of homework, no need for private lessons
after school
 Class repetition only 2 % in basic education
For education and learning
Compulsory instruction time is low
Compulsory instruction time (hrs) in public institutions
Hungary
Finland
Poland
Estonia
Czech Republic
Slovenia
Turkey
Sweden
Slovak Republic
Norway
Germany
Greece
Austria
Denmark
EU21 average
OECD average
Portugal
Belgium (Fr.)
Iceland
France
England
Luxembourg
Ireland
Spain
Italy
Netherlands
Ages 7-8
Ages 9-11
Ages 12-14
0
500
OECD Education at a Glance 2012
For education and learning
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
Possible reasons behind the
success




The Finnish comprehensive school system that is
based on the principle of equity
Supporting individual pupils (student-centred
instruction, counselling, remedial teaching, SNE)
High quality university level teacher education and
high attraction of teaching profession
Curricular flexibility and pedagogical freedom
Source: Välijärvi & al. 2002 and 2007; Hautamäki & al. 2008
For education and learning
Financing of Education
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Education is publicly funded and free at all levels from preprimary to higher education
Adult education the only form of education that requires
modest payments
Private expenditure 2.4 % of all expenditure on the official
education system
In pre-primary and basic education the textbooks, daily meal
and transportation for students living further away from the
school are free
At secondary level and in HE the books are paid by students
At secondary level free meal for students, in HE meals are
subsidised by the state
Well-developed system of study grants and loans exists (for
full-time study in an upper secondary school, VET institution
or HEI)
For education and learning
FUNDING








Majority of education is publicly funded
Two-tiered public funding
- The State
- The local authorities or other education providers
The State subsidy for operating costs (cover 31,42% in pre-primary
and basic education; 41.89% in upper secondary and polytechnics)
Per capita funding system without earmarking
The funding criteria are the same irrespective of ownership
Basic education – completely free of charges for the pupils
Higher levels – payment for study materials, meals, transport
Financial aid for full-time studies
For education and learning
Financing of VET
VET is financed from the budget of the Ministry of Education and Culture.
Financing is based on calculatory unit prices and granted directly to
authorised VET providers. The funding criteria are the same irrespective of
the form of ownership.
The annual funding is based on the number of students and the calculated
unit price.
The unit prices are determined on the basis of training costs within different
fields and calculated for each provider separately. Unit price is affected by
different factors e.g. actual current expenditure of education at national level
(national average) and the education fields of the education provider.
VET providers are independent in their financial decisions.
Vocational upper secondary education and training is co-financed by the
State and municipalities (state 42 % and municipalities 58 %).
Performance based funding forms 3 % of the total funding of all VET
providers
2011 the amount of PBF is some 50 M€
.
For education and learning
The performance-based financing system of VET
FINANCING OF VET
STATUATORY
CORE FUNDING
BASED ON UNIT COSTS
(€/STUDENT/YEAR)
For education and learning
PERFORMANCE-BASED
FINANCING
BASED ON
OPERATIONAL
OUTCOME
-outcome
- teacher
competence
- staff
development
-
BASED ON
QUALITY
ASSESMENT
(EFQM)
- SPECIAL
THEMES
(qualitative)
OUTCOME
BASED FUNDS
QUALITY
AWARD
Educational funding
Operative costs per pupil/student/year in 2011
basic education
general upper secondary
vocational upper secondary
polytechnics
1difference
between regions
2 difference between fields of VET
Source: FNBE Statistical yearbook 2012
For education and learning
6 710 € (5 341-20 2531)
7 138 € (6 231-9 4611)
11 315 € (7 936-16 5522)
8 005 € (6 786- 11 070)
EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE
Public spending in 2009 (incl. public subsidies such as
scholarships and grants to students), all levels of education


of GDP
 Finland 6.8%
 Japan 3.8%
 Korea 5.0%
 OECD average 5.8%
 EU 21 average 5.8%
of public expenditure
 Finland 12.2%
 Japan 8.9%
 Korea 15.3%
 OECD average 13.0%
 EU 21 average 11.5%
Source: Education at a Glance 2012, OECD
For education and learning
The Youth Guarantee in Finland
Background: among 20-29 year olds 120 000 have completed only basic
education; 55 000 young unemployed jobseekers.
The youth guarantee will offer everyone under the age of 25, as well as recent
graduates under age 30 an employment, a study place, a place in on-the-job
training or in a rehabilitation within 3 months after becoming unemployed.
3 Ministries are responsible: Education and Culture, Employment and the
Economy, Social Affairs and Health.
•
More study places in VET
•
New selection criteria into VET: priority to graduates from basic education
and those without upper level vocational qualification
•
Local authorities responsible for counselling services
•
Support to language learning for young immigrants
•
Employers will receive higher compensation for apprenticeship training
•
Young adults´ skills programme
•
Workshop activities and outreach youth work as means of support
Funding: appr 350 M€ for the period 2013-16
For education and learning
Youth Guarantee will offer everyone under 25, as well as recent
graduates under 30, a place in employment, education, on-the-job
training or rehabilitation within 3 months after becoming unemployed.
Young Adults’
Skills
Programme
F
U
N
D
I
N
G
Employers to
receive higher
compensation
for
apprenticeship
training
Support to
language
learning of
young
immigrants
For education and learning
More study
places in VET
A place in
further
education
guaranteed to
all who have
just completed
basic education
Youth guarantee
Counselling
services for
basic
education
graduates
Workshop
activities and
outreach youth
work as means
of support
Support to
youth
employment
New
selection
criteria
P
P
P
P
General objectives of Finnish VET




knowledge and skills necessary for vocational
competence and (self-)employment
support for personal growth and citizenship
knowledge and skills needed in further studies
and in life-long learning
close co-operation with the world of work when
planning and implementing vocational education
For education and learning
PARLIAMENT
Legislation
State budget
General lines of education policy
GOVERNMENT
Education development plans and policy programmes
General objectives of studies
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Planning and implementing education policy
Steering and financing
Qualifications
REGIONAL STATE OFFICIES
Specific administrative duties
NATIONAL EDUCATION AND
TRAINING COMMITTEES
NATIONAL BOARD OF EDUCATION
National core curricula and requirements of qualifications
National development operations and implementation of
development programmes
QUALIFICATION COMITTEES
Contacts with working life
EDUCATION PROVIDERS
Local planning and organisation of VET
Provision of VET
For education and learning
The National Education Evaluation Council
Administration of vocational education and
training (VET)
Spotlight on VET in Finland
Education philosophy is based on delegation of responsibility to local
level.
relatively autonomous VET-providers
VET provided by registered VET providers – licence from Ministry of
Education
municipalities, joint municipal federations or private organisations
Financing system based on national unit prices based on costs in
different sectors of VET
lump sums without "earmarks" for the VET-provider
Financial contributions to VET providers from MoE
statutory division of costs at national level
in IVET: state 42 % - municipalities together 58 %
in CVET mainly by state
National-level evaluations with no inspectorate
In 2011, total operating costs of vocational institutions amounted to
1.700 million €
For education and learning
Spotlight on VET in Finland
•
Mainly within institutions (work-based learning included)
–
•
apprenticeship training expanding
Around 140 VET-providers, a nation-wide network of vocational
institutions
–
•
Instruction for Swedish-speakers either in Swedish-speaking or bilingual
institutions
On IVET about 165 000 students every year, 70 000 new students
–
After basic education about 44 % of school-leavers continue in IVET (51 %
in general upper secondary education)
–
After initial vocational education about 68 % of students enter to the labour
market and about 9 % students continue studies (placement rate about 77
%)
–
Drop-out rate below 9 %
–
IVET: tuition and meals free of charge, CVET: small fees
–
An open pathway from upper secondary vocational qualifications to
polytechnics and universities – general eligibility to HE
For education and learning
Trends in VET in Finland
•
•
•
VET is an attractive choice – not a second
choice
Almost 50 % of comprehensive school
leavers continue in upper secondary
vocational education
Number of students in initial VET has
increased (from 148 000 to 172 500 during
2004-2011)
For education and learning
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION




INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Qualifications were reformed in 2008-2010
52 qualifications, 121 programmes
can be completed in the form of school-based training or
apprenticeship training
Scope 120 credits (3 years)




90 credits of professional studies
min 20 credits of on-the-job-learning
skills demonstrations
final year project
FURTHER VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING


Further vocational qualifications (ca. 189)
Specialist vocational qualifications (ca. 130)
For education and learning
National Requirements (3 years/120 credits) for each vocational
qualification
at upper secondary level (2008)
Vocational units
90 credits
(including at least 20 credits of on-the-job learning)
- Basic and field-specific study units (compulsory)
- specialising study units (partly optional)
- other optional units (decided by VET provider)
Core units (common to all)
20 credits
such as languages, math, physics, chemistry
Free-choice units
-individual choice
For education and learning
10 credits
Education and Qualification Requirements for VET
Teachers in Finland
Vocational teacher education builds on
degree and work experience



Appropriate Master’s degree or polytechnic degree (or highest
possible qualification in their own occupation)
Minimum of three years’ of working experience in their own
field
Pedagogical studies with a scope of 60 ECTS
For education and learning
Being a VET teacher in Finland…
Teaching profession has
high esteem
VET teachers seen as
their own specific group
within the teaching
profession
Strong connection with
working life
For education and learning
Design, assessment, validation and recognition of
competences / learning outcomes in VET
Design
•
•
•
•
National qualification requirements defined by the FNBE
Qualifications divided into units
Units composed on basis of functions in working life.
Preparation of VQs done in tripartite expert groups.
• Skills demonstrations or competence–based examinations
• Assessment of all units based on qualitative criteria and achieved learning
outcome.
Assessment • Assessors: on-the-job-instructors, teachers and student’s self assessment.
• Assessment criteria of each unit at three levels.
• Recognition of prior learning is regulated by VET Act and Degree since.2006
• Recognition is based on learning outcomes - not on learning time.
• VET provider decides on the recognition of (prior) learning – competent
institutions!
Recognition
• Theory and practice (KSC) are expressed, studied and assessed together
within the same unit and there is a common (one) mark in the certificate.
For education and learning
Development of Finnish VET in European
cooperation




European Qualification Framework (EQF)
European Credit Transfer System for Vocational
Education and Training (ECVET)
Common Quality Assurance Framework (CQAF)
European guidelines for validation of non-formal
and informal
For education and learning
Finnish NQF levels
NQF
level
Qualifications
Level 3

Completion of Basic Education syllabus
Level 4




Matriculation examination, completion of upper secondary syllabus
Vocational upper secondary qualifications
Further Vocational Qualifications
Qualifications from other administrative sectors corresponding to
requirements of vocational upper secondary or further vocational
qualifications
Level 5


Specialist vocational qualifications
Qualifications from other administrative sectors corresponding to
requirements of specialist vocational qualifications
Level 6

University and polytechnic Bachelor’s Degrees
Level 7

University and polytechnic Master’s Degrees
Level 8
 Scientific and artistic post-graduate degrees, such as licentiate and doctoral
degrees
For education and learning
Education system in figures, 2011
Type of
education
Ed.
institutions
Applicants
New
students
Students
Qualilfication
s, degrees
Basic
education
2,870
-
59,076
541,931
64,435
Upper
secondary
general
433
39,219
36,784
109,046
32,807
Vocational
education
247
141,405
116,017
279,266
70,596
Polytechnics 27
107,394
38,839
139,857
22,898
Universities
78,516
20,274
168,983
28,482
17
Statistics Finland: Oppilaitostilastot 2012
For education and learning
Most teachers are required a master’s degree
Kindergarten teachers 180 ECTS (3 years)
Class teachers 300 ECTS (5 years)
Subject teachers 300 ECTS (5-6 years)
Teachers of vocational studies:
Master’s/Bachelor’s+work experinece+pedagogical
studies of 60 ECTS)
Principals:
teacher education + e.g. certificate in
educational administration
For education and learning
TEACHER PROFESSION IN FINLAND



Popular profession among young people; only about 10-12 % of
applicants can be admitted to teacher studies
Demanding profession; Master’s degree required
Autonomous and creative profession




curriculum process of the school and municipality
teachers are responsible for planning of the work of their own
school and autonomous in choosing their methods and materials
emphasis is in guiding the learning process of students and
meeting the needs of all different learners
Teachers are trusted in the society and respected and supported
in their work
For education and learning
Teacher training institutions can select heavily
Intake into teacher education 2012 (% of those who applied)
o
o
o
Class teacher education
Subject teacher education
Vocational teacher education
Statistics Finland, universities
For education and learning
12 %
10 %-53 %
30 %
OECD: Education at a Glance 2012
For education and learning
Teacher and principal salaries in Finland
(permanent contract, average gross salaries per month 2011)
kindergarten teacher
2,452 €
class teacher, primary education
3,357 €
subject teacher, lower secondary
3,664 €
subject teacher, general upper secondary
4,128 €
VET teacher
principal, basic education
3,813 €
4,894 €
principal, general upper secondary
5,613 €
Average salary in the municipal sector in Finland 2011: 2,848 € (men 3,319 €, women 2,728 €)
Source: Satistics Finland
For education and learning
KEYS TO SUCCESS – HOW WE SEE IT
LEARNING
CULTURE
Autonomy
 empowerment of
HIGH STANDARDS
municipalities and schools
 spirit of trust and support
 interactive, cooperative
way of working
Professionalism of teachers
 high status and quality of
teachers
 high quality of teacher
education
 high quality of instruction
Supportive ethos
 minimizing low achievement




early intervention
individual support
active role of student
good student – teacher relationship
COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM
Attainable for all, flexible structure and curriculum strategy, non-selective,
inclusive, central steering, local impelentation and responsibility
For education and learning
Education in Finland
www.minedu.fi
Ministry of Education and Culture
information in Finnish, Swedish and English
www.oph.fi
Finnish National Board of Education
information in Finnish, Swedish and English
[email protected]
For education and learning

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