### PP Example – Updated 3-10-2014 for new shortened antenna project

```Team 4: Team member 1, Team member 2, Team member 3,
Team member 4, Team member 5, Team member 6
Agenda
• Problem Statement and Design Criteria
• Research Results
 Cellular Phone Systems
 Bluetooth
 Wi-Fi
 GPS
 RFID
• Team choice for Design
• Antenna Calculations
• Clean room safety
• Antenna Fabrication
 The Process of Making an Antenna
 Conductor Material Decision Matrix
 Calculation for Antenna length
 Antenna Design
• Cost Analysis
• Big Picture Issues
• Possible Improvements
• Conclusion
Source: http://sll.sdsu.edu/studentorgs/images2007/meeting-agenda-clipart.jpg

Research, design, and fabricate a set of planar antennas

Maximum size of 20mm x 20mm and minimum size of
5mm x 5mm

The antenna design shouldn’t have any sharp corners

Conductors include aluminum, copper, gold, and silver.
The best conductor to use must be determined.

The antenna can either be Bluetooth/Wi-Fi, RFID, Cell
phone or GPS compatible.
http://courantblogs.com/technology/
http://i3.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/
http://www.arkepsilon.com/wp-content/
http://cyber.mpnodes.info/files/2012/02/rfid_circuit.jpg
The size of the antenna should be
calculated from the equation λ=C/f
 λ= antenna’s length (m)
 C = speed of light (3*10^6 m/s)
 f= frequency (Hz)
Frequency
Bluetooth
2400 – 2597 MHz
WI-FI
2400 – 2597 MHz
RFID
865 - 868MHz
GPS
1575.42 MHz
Cell phone
1850-1990 MHz
 Cellular phones are called cellular because the
zone in which they operate are divided into
cells.
 Each cell typically encompasses 10 square miles
(or 26 square kilometers).
 The MTSO switches all of the phone
connections to the normal land-based phone
system, and controls all of the base stations in
the region.
 Cellular Phones typically operate in the 1850 –
1990 MHz frequency band.
 Cell phone systems have proven to be vital in
the developing world. According to The
Economist, two thirds of money transfers in
Kenya are via phone.
Source: http://atlanta.cbslocal.com/2012/04/29/metro-atlanta-school-systems-eye-cell-phone-towers-for-revenue/
 Bluetooth is a technology that enables shortrange wireless communication between
different electronic devices .
 Bluetooth wireless technology transmits
data using low-power radio waves and
operates on the ULB (within the 2.45gigahertz band).
 Bluetooth’s purpose is to create a single
digital wireless protocol to connect multiple
devices while also resolving synchronization
issues between them.
Source: http://presentsoftware.blogspot.com/2010/10/bluetooth.html
http://www.arkepsilon.com/wp-content/
 Wi-Fi is a short nickname for
wireless fidelity and it is often
refers to wireless Internet.
 Wi-Fi can be used for accessing
the Internet.
 Wi-Fi
wireless
technology
operates at high frequencies in
either the 2.45 or 5 GHz band.
Source: http://digitalhouston.ning.com/Services
Research Results - GPS
Soruce: http://i3.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/
 GPS stands for Global Positioning
System, and it is a technology that can
show an exact position anytime and
anywhere .
 GPS satellites work by orbiting the earth
and transmitting signal information to
 GPS (NAVSTAR) satellites transmit two
low power radio signals. These are labeled
L1 and L2, which are 1575.42 MHz and
1227.60 MHz respectively.
Source: www8.garmin.com
Research Results - RFID
 RFIDs are small electronic devices that consist
of a small chip and an antenna, and it stands
 Every chip is able to carry 2,000 bytes of data
or less.
 RFID’s purpose is to provide a special
identifier for an object that can be scanned to
save the identifying information.
 RFID systems currently operate in the Low
Frequency at 125 KHz, High Frequency at 13.56
MHz, and Ultrahigh Frequency bands at 860
to 930MHz.
Source: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/03/rfid/
We decided to make a quarter wavelength copper Bluetooth antenna
Decision points included:
 Bluetooth for its diverse applications making it easier to sell with
higher profit.
 Copper for its low cost and decent conductivity.
 Quarter wavelength as it lowers cost and works well with small range
Bluetooth devices.
Source: http://www.officialpsds.com/images/thumbs/
Source :http://libcom.org/files/images/blog/profit.jpg
For a Bluetooth quarter-wavelength antenna:
 All members must pass the
safety test before entering the clean
room
 The garments are required to
keep the clean room from
contamination
 Rubber gloves and goggles are
needed when working with
chemicals
 For any questions about the
chemicals, there are MSDS sheets
available
Hood
Body Cover
Gloves
Goggles
Shoes Cover
Rubber Gloves
Copper was chosen as
the conductor
Strong points included:
 Low Cost
 Good Conductivity
Quarter Wavelength for 2448.5MHz
Antenna Length is 30.61mm
 Squares were made to be 8.5mm X 9.5mm
Design was put into an array and then printed to a inkjet transparency
 Each wafer was placed in acetone for 5 minutes, methanol for 5 minutes,
and then rinsed and dried with nitrogen.
 For the photolithography, the photoresist was spun at 4k rpm after applying
the Mircoposit 1813 photoresist. Next, there was a 1 minute soft-bake at 115
degrees Celsius. The wafers were aligned, and then the UV lamp was turned
on for an exposure of 120-125 mJ/cm2
 Etching of the wafers was done with appropriate etch
solutions. The wafers were then rinsed well in DI water prior to
insertion into the dryer.
The wafers were saw cut
with the Micro
Automation 1100 diamond
saw by lining up the
vertical lines and
horizontal line to saw
each antenna separately.
 Can Bluetooth EM waves cause brain tumors?
 Research indicates that Bluetooth has the lowest risk of causing brain
tumors.
 Bluetooth has a SAR value of around 0.001 watts/kg, which is very low. (*)
 Can Bluetooth benefit society?
 Research indicates that Bluetooth headsets can significantly reduced car
accidents. Some car insurance companies are even covering headsets. (**)
Source: http://www.nccn.com/images/brain%20tumor.jpg
Source: http://www.gurusoftware.com/images/GuruNet/SocietyLogo.jpg
 Lowering cost of antenna:
 Improving antenna design to maximize space on the wafer.
 Make margins around design smaller to maximize space
 Bettering our marketing and sales potential:
 Research new emerging technologies that use Bluetooth .
 Devise new and effective business strategies to promote and sell our
antennas.
Source:
http://www.newenglandcontrols.com/ckfinder/userfiles/images/logos/AreYouWireless
.jpg
Planar Antennas are the only devices that can transmit and receive radio
frequency waves from a chip.
We successfully built quarter-wavelength Bluetooth antennas for \$1.02
each.
Bluetooth Planar Antennas will likely grow in demand:
 Works well in close range and low power devices.
 Works in the ULB.
 Cheapest and most efficient solution for simplifying local
electronic communications.
“Vital For the Poor.” The Economist. 10-16 Nov. 2012, 52.
"How Cell Phones Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Aug. 2012.
<http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cell-phone.htm>.
Franklin, Curt, and Julia Layton. "How Bluetooth Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2012.
<http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth2.htm>.
"Bluetooth Technology and Wi-Fi." Bluetooth Technology and Wi-Fi. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2012.
<http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/Wi-Fi.aspx>.
"How RFID Works." HowStuffWorks. Ed. Kevin Bonsor, Candace Keener, and Wesley Fenlon. N.p., n.d.