Unit 3 notes - Talbot County Schools

Report
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Alien and sedition actAlien act- allowed govt to arrest, detain and remove
foreigners deemed untrustworthy
 Sedition act- limited free speech and expression
 Helped federalist because republicans relied on
immigrant vote
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Adams appoints midnight Judges.
Congress repealed judiciary act of 1801 which
did away with Adams Midnight judges(
Federalist)
Marbury Vs. Madison- established Judicial
Review
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Jefferson believed only way republic could
survived if people owned their own land.
1803 Napoleon(leader of France) needing
money to pay for war to take over Europe
He sold Louisiana for 15 million
Called Louisiana purchase
This doubled the size of the U.S.
Thomas Jefferson president during purchase
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1787- Congress passed the North West
ordinance- established a set of principles and
procedures for statehood, applied first to
states carved out of the Northwest territory.
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Guaranteed civil liberties, established guidelines
for statehood, encouraged education, and banned
slavery for entire region.
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Meriwether Lewis and William Clark along
with Sacagawea- explored Louisiana purchase
and claimed Oregon territory
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Britain started using impressments to get
more troops. This help start the war of
1812
 Kidnapping American solders.
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Battle of Tippecanoe shattered native American
confidence in their leaders.
British fleet land in Washington DC. And set the
white house and capital on fire.
Battle of New Orleans- Andrew Jaskson’s
decisive victory over the British made him a hero.
Because of war : Nationalism emerged-loyalty and
devotion to a nation
and we got the star spangled banner
Treaty of Ghent – ended the war
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The Monroe presidency was called the Era of Good
Feelings
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Economic Nationalism
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John C Calhoun got the second national bank started
After war cheap British goods flooded U.S.
Protective tariff- tax
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Between 1816 and 1824 John Marshall- ruled in
three cases that established the power of the
Fed. Govt
1. Matin V. Hunter’s lessee- helped establish
the supreme court as the nation’s court of final
appeal
2. McCulloch V. Maryland- Second bank was
constiutional because necessary and proper
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3. Gibbons V Ogden- constitution granted the
federal govt control over interstate commerce.
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All trade along coast and waterways dividing states.
What is interstate commerce
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Nationalism in the United States influences the
nation to expand its borders and assert itself in
world affairs.
1800’s southern mad at Spanish held Florida?
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Slaves run away
Andrew Jackson seized Spanish settlements in Fl and
removed Gov. of Florida.
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Adams-onis treaty – Spain ceded all of Fl. To
the U.S. and finalized the western border of the
Louisiana purchase
Monroe Doctrine- the U.S. would prevent
other countries from interfering in Latin
American political affairs.
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Told all European countries to stay out of the
western hemisphere.
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Moving West
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Steamboat 1807
Steam locomotive establishing Railroad reaching
Mississippi River.
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Erie Canal Opened in 1825- Connecting lake
Erie to the west with the Hudson River to
the east.
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Canals and Railroads helped products move west
and farmers products to move east.
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of the Erie Canal and
other transportation advances New York – became America
central point for American trade
and banking
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Industrial revolution began in
England 1700’s
Industrialization-involved a
transition from manual to power
driven factory labor.
Workers in factories did not do
skilled jobs
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Plantation owners in the south turned to
cotton
Eli Whitney received a patent for the
cotton gin.
 Separated the seed from cotton.
 The effect was:increased slavery
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Industrialization started to happen in the
United States around 1800.
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Driven by the textile industry
New England had textile miles and the south
supplied them and England with cotton
Cotton production and the growing textile industry
helped the u.s. get its economic independence.
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Steam powered engines was used to
help industrialization in the country.
 Eli Whitney used interchangeable
parts (muskets) and invented the
cotton gin
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Samuel F.B. morse- perfected the telegraph in
1832
Industrialization caused people to move out of
rural farms and villages? Where did they go??
People were in search of factory jobs with
higher wages.
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Cotton, tobacco, rice, and sugarcane
Cotton gin made planters rich.
Europe wants more cotton than ever
 Slaves tripled
 South did not industrialize like north.
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Labor Unions- trying to improve working
conditions
Strikes- not going to work
What begins to happen to family farm?
North industry
South farming
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Class structure developed in South
Top plantation owners- dominated the regions
economy and political and legal system
 Yeoman farmers- ordinary farmers who usually
worked the land themselves(made up most of the
white population in south)
 Rural poor- hunted fished, and gardened, and raised
own croups.
 Slaves- made up the bottom of southern society
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Two labor systems
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Task system- was used on small farms and
plantations. Had to finish certain task each day
Gang system- enslaved person put in gangs from
sunup to sundown
Fredrick Douglass- became head of the antislavery
movement
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Nat turner- an enslaved minister who
believed that God chose him to free his
people.
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Led a slave revolt and followers killed 50 white
people
Slave codes became tighter because of this revolt
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Missouri compromise- admitting maine as a
free state and Missouri as a slave state
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Banned slavery in all land with in the Louisiana
purchase lying above the 36 30 N parallel. With the
exception of Missouri.
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Election of 1824- candidates
Henry Clay –
John Quincy AdamsAndrew Jackson- heroism
Jackson’s supports accused adams and clay of a
corrupt bargain.
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Jackson’s supporters took the name
Democratic-republicans- later known as what?
Adam’s party- national republicans
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Election of 1828
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John Quincy adams and Andrew Jackson
 Campaigned turned into mudslinging
 Jackson won the elcetion
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Jacksonian democracy refers to presidency of
Andrew Jackson
He expanded the power of federal government
Encouraged people from all social classes to vote
Universial white male suffarage
Indian removal act- gave funds to relocate Indians
He defied supreme court decision to not remove
the Cherokee from Ga. (Worcester v. GA)
Spoil system- political supports rewarded with
jobs
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Thousands of Natives died on a force removal
what was known as trail of tears.
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South Carolina threatened to secede from
union over tariffs and states rights
John C. Calhoun- argued that southern states
had the right to nullify any law if it wasn’t in
their best interest
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Cotton still dependent- divided country.
Monroe doctrine direction America's foreign policy.
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Jackson ends the second national bank of the
United states.
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Hurting western farmers
Whigs emerged from the former national
republican party
Whigs –wanted to expand the nation govt.
Jackson- Democrats ( no expansion.)
1836 election Van Buren wins election
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What party is he from?
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Panic of 1837
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Thousands of farms foreclosed and employment
soared.
Whigs won the 1840 election Harrison won the
election
Died 32 days later and Tyler became president.
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Massive influx of immigrants between 18151860.
Religious and political reason
2 million came from Ireland.
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Potato Famine in 1845
Settled in North east and worked as unskilled
Germans settled in Midwest
started on farms and businesses
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Nativism- hostility towards foreigners among
many Americans appeared.
Anti-catholic sentiments towards catholic
immigrants led to rise of nativist groups.
Delegates formed the american party.
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When members questioned they answered they
know nothing.
As a result the party was nicknamed the Know
nothings.
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Second great awakening- this movement
promoted the belief that all people could
attain grace by readmitting God and Christ
into their lives
New denominations
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Joseph smith- founded Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day saints
Mormons- moved to Illinois from New England.
Brigham Young- moved the Mormons to Utah.
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Mid 1800’s – reform society
Dorothea Dix worked for improved treatment
of the mentally ill
Lyman Beecher established the benevolent
societies- at first started to spread God’s
message later to combat social problems
What is the major cause of crime and poverty.
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Reformers advocated temperance or
moderation in consumption of alcohol called
temperance.
Improving prison conditions. States build
penitentiaries. Rehabilitation
Horace Mann- focused on education reform.
He is responsible for the education system we
know today
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Pushed public education and backed a states board
of education in Mass.
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Education reformers generally had men in
mind
1850’s educational opportunities started for
women.
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Emma Willard- founded a girls’ boarding school that
taught academics subjects.
Mary Lyon- founded 1st institution of higher
education for women only.
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In the 1800’s men worked and women took
care of the home.
Most people believed this was the proper place
for a women?
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Conventionfocused on equal rights for women and
marked the beginning of the women’s
movement.
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People opposed slavery but in different way.
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1.Gradualism- gradual end to slavery
2. American Colonization Society- charted ships
and bought land in what is known as Liberia. Took
free African Americans to Africa.
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3. Abolitionist- wanted to free African
Americans immediately.
William Lloyd Garrison- founded the
Liberator- antislavery newspaper that
advocated emancipation.
Free African Americans- Frederick Douglasspublished the north starr.
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Northerners even those who disapproved of
slavery- opposed extreme abolition
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Threat to social system
Destroy southern economy/affect their own
Southerners- viewed slavery essential to their
economy.
Because of the Revolt of Nat turnersoutherners refused to deliver abolitionist
material
Grimke’ sisters spoke out against slavery
(abolitionist )
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John Louis O’Sullivan declared the
movement west was Manifest destiny- the
idea that God had given the continent to
Americans and wanted them to settle western
lands
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Coast to coast
John Deere designed a plow with sharp edge
steel blade.
1834 Cyrus McCormick planted the
mechanical reaper.
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Texas and Mexico in a dispute.
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Wanted to allow immigration
Decrease imports
Texas is part of what country?
Stephen Austin got Santa Anna to lift the
immigration ban and other demands
Sam Houston was in control of texas army
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Alamo- is where 180 Texans held off Santa
Anna's army for 13 days.
Texas govt. declared independence from
mexico
At the battle of San Jacinto- Sam Houston
defeated Santa Anna troops, captured him
and made him sign a treaty recognizing
Texas.
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1836- Sam Houston was elected president of
republic of texas.
President John Tyler wanted to bring texas into
the union.
Why was the controversial?
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Congress voted against annexation of texas.
James K. Polk- he promised to annex Texas and
Oregon territory and buy California from
Mexico
Britain and united states spilt the Oregon
territory. U.S. got it south of 49 degree north
latitude. ‘
Tyler annexed texas before polk took office
Mexico split ties with U.S.
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Mexico refused to discuss the U.S. purchase of
California.
Polk Sent Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces
River.
Polk declared war on mexico
Taylor’s army defeated santa anna and his
army
John C. Fre’mont took over California from
Mexican presence
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Called it the bear flag republic
U.S. took over 2 weeks later
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Mexico city was captured and the treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed.
Mexico ceded 500,000 square miles of land to
us.
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California Utah, Nevada, new Mexico and Arizona,
parts of Colorado and Wyoming
U.S. pay 15 million and take over 3.5 in mexican
debt
This completed manifest destiny.

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