Alien and sedition actAlien act- allowed govt to arrest, detain and remove foreigners deemed untrustworthy Sedition act- limited free speech and expression Helped federalist because republicans relied on immigrant vote Adams appoints midnight Judges. Congress repealed judiciary act of 1801 which did away with Adams Midnight judges( Federalist) Marbury Vs. Madison- established Judicial Review Jefferson believed only way republic could survived if people owned their own land. 1803 Napoleon(leader of France) needing money to pay for war to take over Europe He sold Louisiana for 15 million Called Louisiana purchase This doubled the size of the U.S. Thomas Jefferson president during purchase 1787- Congress passed the North West ordinance- established a set of principles and procedures for statehood, applied first to states carved out of the Northwest territory. Guaranteed civil liberties, established guidelines for statehood, encouraged education, and banned slavery for entire region. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark along with Sacagawea- explored Louisiana purchase and claimed Oregon territory Britain started using impressments to get more troops. This help start the war of 1812 Kidnapping American solders. Battle of Tippecanoe shattered native American confidence in their leaders. British fleet land in Washington DC. And set the white house and capital on fire. Battle of New Orleans- Andrew Jaskson’s decisive victory over the British made him a hero. Because of war : Nationalism emerged-loyalty and devotion to a nation and we got the star spangled banner Treaty of Ghent – ended the war The Monroe presidency was called the Era of Good Feelings Economic Nationalism John C Calhoun got the second national bank started After war cheap British goods flooded U.S. Protective tariff- tax Between 1816 and 1824 John Marshall- ruled in three cases that established the power of the Fed. Govt 1. Matin V. Hunter’s lessee- helped establish the supreme court as the nation’s court of final appeal 2. McCulloch V. Maryland- Second bank was constiutional because necessary and proper 3. Gibbons V Ogden- constitution granted the federal govt control over interstate commerce. All trade along coast and waterways dividing states. What is interstate commerce Nationalism in the United States influences the nation to expand its borders and assert itself in world affairs. 1800’s southern mad at Spanish held Florida? Slaves run away Andrew Jackson seized Spanish settlements in Fl and removed Gov. of Florida. Adams-onis treaty – Spain ceded all of Fl. To the U.S. and finalized the western border of the Louisiana purchase Monroe Doctrine- the U.S. would prevent other countries from interfering in Latin American political affairs. Told all European countries to stay out of the western hemisphere. Moving West Steamboat 1807 Steam locomotive establishing Railroad reaching Mississippi River. Erie Canal Opened in 1825- Connecting lake Erie to the west with the Hudson River to the east. Canals and Railroads helped products move west and farmers products to move east. Because of the Erie Canal and other transportation advances New York – became America central point for American trade and banking Industrial revolution began in England 1700’s Industrialization-involved a transition from manual to power driven factory labor. Workers in factories did not do skilled jobs Plantation owners in the south turned to cotton Eli Whitney received a patent for the cotton gin. Separated the seed from cotton. The effect was:increased slavery Industrialization started to happen in the United States around 1800. Driven by the textile industry New England had textile miles and the south supplied them and England with cotton Cotton production and the growing textile industry helped the u.s. get its economic independence. Steam powered engines was used to help industrialization in the country. Eli Whitney used interchangeable parts (muskets) and invented the cotton gin Samuel F.B. morse- perfected the telegraph in 1832 Industrialization caused people to move out of rural farms and villages? Where did they go?? People were in search of factory jobs with higher wages. Cotton, tobacco, rice, and sugarcane Cotton gin made planters rich. Europe wants more cotton than ever Slaves tripled South did not industrialize like north. Labor Unions- trying to improve working conditions Strikes- not going to work What begins to happen to family farm? North industry South farming Class structure developed in South Top plantation owners- dominated the regions economy and political and legal system Yeoman farmers- ordinary farmers who usually worked the land themselves(made up most of the white population in south) Rural poor- hunted fished, and gardened, and raised own croups. Slaves- made up the bottom of southern society Two labor systems Task system- was used on small farms and plantations. Had to finish certain task each day Gang system- enslaved person put in gangs from sunup to sundown Fredrick Douglass- became head of the antislavery movement Nat turner- an enslaved minister who believed that God chose him to free his people. Led a slave revolt and followers killed 50 white people Slave codes became tighter because of this revolt Missouri compromise- admitting maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state Banned slavery in all land with in the Louisiana purchase lying above the 36 30 N parallel. With the exception of Missouri. Election of 1824- candidates Henry Clay – John Quincy AdamsAndrew Jackson- heroism Jackson’s supports accused adams and clay of a corrupt bargain. Jackson’s supporters took the name Democratic-republicans- later known as what? Adam’s party- national republicans Election of 1828 John Quincy adams and Andrew Jackson Campaigned turned into mudslinging Jackson won the elcetion Jacksonian democracy refers to presidency of Andrew Jackson He expanded the power of federal government Encouraged people from all social classes to vote Universial white male suffarage Indian removal act- gave funds to relocate Indians He defied supreme court decision to not remove the Cherokee from Ga. (Worcester v. GA) Spoil system- political supports rewarded with jobs Thousands of Natives died on a force removal what was known as trail of tears. South Carolina threatened to secede from union over tariffs and states rights John C. Calhoun- argued that southern states had the right to nullify any law if it wasn’t in their best interest Cotton still dependent- divided country. Monroe doctrine direction America's foreign policy. Jackson ends the second national bank of the United states. Hurting western farmers Whigs emerged from the former national republican party Whigs –wanted to expand the nation govt. Jackson- Democrats ( no expansion.) 1836 election Van Buren wins election What party is he from? Panic of 1837 Thousands of farms foreclosed and employment soared. Whigs won the 1840 election Harrison won the election Died 32 days later and Tyler became president. Massive influx of immigrants between 18151860. Religious and political reason 2 million came from Ireland. Potato Famine in 1845 Settled in North east and worked as unskilled Germans settled in Midwest started on farms and businesses Nativism- hostility towards foreigners among many Americans appeared. Anti-catholic sentiments towards catholic immigrants led to rise of nativist groups. Delegates formed the american party. When members questioned they answered they know nothing. As a result the party was nicknamed the Know nothings. Second great awakening- this movement promoted the belief that all people could attain grace by readmitting God and Christ into their lives New denominations Joseph smith- founded Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints Mormons- moved to Illinois from New England. Brigham Young- moved the Mormons to Utah. Mid 1800’s – reform society Dorothea Dix worked for improved treatment of the mentally ill Lyman Beecher established the benevolent societies- at first started to spread God’s message later to combat social problems What is the major cause of crime and poverty. Reformers advocated temperance or moderation in consumption of alcohol called temperance. Improving prison conditions. States build penitentiaries. Rehabilitation Horace Mann- focused on education reform. He is responsible for the education system we know today Pushed public education and backed a states board of education in Mass. Education reformers generally had men in mind 1850’s educational opportunities started for women. Emma Willard- founded a girls’ boarding school that taught academics subjects. Mary Lyon- founded 1st institution of higher education for women only. In the 1800’s men worked and women took care of the home. Most people believed this was the proper place for a women? Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Conventionfocused on equal rights for women and marked the beginning of the women’s movement. People opposed slavery but in different way. 1.Gradualism- gradual end to slavery 2. American Colonization Society- charted ships and bought land in what is known as Liberia. Took free African Americans to Africa. 3. Abolitionist- wanted to free African Americans immediately. William Lloyd Garrison- founded the Liberator- antislavery newspaper that advocated emancipation. Free African Americans- Frederick Douglasspublished the north starr. Northerners even those who disapproved of slavery- opposed extreme abolition Threat to social system Destroy southern economy/affect their own Southerners- viewed slavery essential to their economy. Because of the Revolt of Nat turnersoutherners refused to deliver abolitionist material Grimke’ sisters spoke out against slavery (abolitionist ) John Louis O’Sullivan declared the movement west was Manifest destiny- the idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western lands Coast to coast John Deere designed a plow with sharp edge steel blade. 1834 Cyrus McCormick planted the mechanical reaper. Texas and Mexico in a dispute. Wanted to allow immigration Decrease imports Texas is part of what country? Stephen Austin got Santa Anna to lift the immigration ban and other demands Sam Houston was in control of texas army Alamo- is where 180 Texans held off Santa Anna's army for 13 days. Texas govt. declared independence from mexico At the battle of San Jacinto- Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna troops, captured him and made him sign a treaty recognizing Texas. 1836- Sam Houston was elected president of republic of texas. President John Tyler wanted to bring texas into the union. Why was the controversial? Congress voted against annexation of texas. James K. Polk- he promised to annex Texas and Oregon territory and buy California from Mexico Britain and united states spilt the Oregon territory. U.S. got it south of 49 degree north latitude. ‘ Tyler annexed texas before polk took office Mexico split ties with U.S. Mexico refused to discuss the U.S. purchase of California. Polk Sent Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces River. Polk declared war on mexico Taylor’s army defeated santa anna and his army John C. Fre’mont took over California from Mexican presence Called it the bear flag republic U.S. took over 2 weeks later Mexico city was captured and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. Mexico ceded 500,000 square miles of land to us. California Utah, Nevada, new Mexico and Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming U.S. pay 15 million and take over 3.5 in mexican debt This completed manifest destiny.