Fishery-Dependent Data Collection Southeast Fisheries Science Center Presentation for Our Florida Reefs Community Working Groups May 2014 James A. Bohnsack, Ph.D. and Kurtis Gregg, M.S. Important Distinction: Fishery-Dependent (FD) data are obtained from a fishery. FD data consist of catch, landings, bycatch, and other information about the fish (for example, length and weight, tissue composition, and ear bones or scales for aging) and the fishery, such as fishing effort, fishing gear, and fishing practices. “What fish were caught on the reef?” “What was kept and what was released?” Fishery-Independent (FI) data are obtained from research surveys designed to be consistent over time. FI data give a picture of resource condition, independent of fisheries. Data are not affected by changes in fishing effort, fishing gear, or faulty reporting of catches. F-I data may be collected by using fishing gear or by other techniques such as video, visual, and acoustic methods to quantify information about fish. “What fish are on the reef?” “How many?” What size?” Fishery-Dependent Data Types • Catch • Landings – fish brought ashore • Releases at sea (live) • Discards and fish consumed at sea (dead fish, bait) • Catch-effort – detailed information about the fishing activity • Catch quantity and distribution (time and space) • Effort quantity and distribution • Catch rate analyses • Biological information • Size, age, sex, reproductive status, species composition and other biological information on reproductive biology, stock structure, ecological relationships. U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 3 Types of Data Collected by NOAA • Fisheries related (FD and FI) • Protected resources (Endangered species–marine mammals sea turtles, etc.) • Ecosystem Condition (oceanography, habitat, other living marine resources) Several state and federal programs collect fishery-dependent data from both the commercial and recreational fishing sectors to inform fisheries and ecosystem management decisions Fishery-Dependent Data Problems Problems with Fishery-Dependent data include: • misreporting of catch, effort, and fishing activity • changes in the fishery over time, such as changes in regulations, markets, prices, and fishing gear. Example of how this happens: An expansion of a fishery to new areas may indicate that catch per unit effort has increased, which is usually a sign that fish abundance is increasing. Improved gear or fishing techniques can produce a similar false conclusion. FD data only provides part of the picture: Biscayne Bay gray snapper habitat shifts Fishery independent data Lc Frequency 0.7 Fishery dependent data 0.6 Bay 0.5 Inshore Reefs 0.4 0.3 Offshore Reefs 0.2 0.1 0 3 6 9 12 YOY 15 18 21 24 27 30 Juveniles 1 yo 33 36 39 Adults Lm Lc Minimum legal size Length (cm) 42 45 60 SEFSC fishery-dependent commercial and recreational data collection programs • Accumulated Landings System (ALS) – Commercial landings from dealers • Southeast Headboat Survey – Recreational for Hire (i.e. by the “head”) – Catch, Effort, Biological • Fisheries Logbook System – Commercial Landings and Effort • Trip Interview Program – Commercial Statistics – Biological • Marine Recreational Information Program (MRIP) Recreational – Catch, Effort, Biological Fishery-Dependent Results Average Annual Landings by Species Landings of some stocks are predominately recreational and other stocks are predominately commercial U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 8 Importance of releases for federally managed species in Southeastern U.S. South Atlantic recreational landings and releases (numbers) U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 9 NOAA-NMFS SEFSC Customers, Partners and Stocks 3 councils, 2 regional commissions 8 states, 2 territories NMFS-SERO, NERO, NEFSC, S&T Gulf of Mexico FMC GSMFC, 5 states South Atlantic FMC ACCSP, NMFS-NERO, 4 states Highly Migratory Species (HMS) ICCAT 18 states, 2 territories Caribbean FMC GSMFC, 2 territories Management Trends •Fishery-dependent data are less available due to fishery management actions such as: •Closed seasons •Minimum and Maximum size limits •Smaller bag limits •Gear restrictions •Closed areas •Need more fishery-independent data for ecosystem-based assessments •Use of spatial management measures has increased Fishery-Dependent Catch and Effort Sampling Sources: Commercial • self-reported vessel logs – most fisheries • Automated • Shrimp effort system (location and gear activity) • Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS, location only, GOM reef fish, pelagic longline Recreational • Marine Recreational Information Program– dockside interviews, phone • Southeast Regional Headboat Survey– self-reported vessel logs, trip validation • Recreational Billfish Survey– self-reported tournament logs Partners and Programs Commercial: SEFSC, US Coast Guard, Living Marine Resources, NMFS-Office of Law Enforcement Recreational: SEFSC, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 12 Fishery-Dependent Recreational Catch Programs • Logbook programs • Southeast Region Headboat Survey • Geographical range: NC-TX • Self-reported catch • Validated effort (trips) • Recreational Billfish Survey (tournaments) • U.S. permitted tournaments • Self-reported catch and effort • Census attempted • Large Pelagic Survey (LPS) • Telephone reporting via Atlantic Highly Migratory Species, Recreational Reporting Line (RRL) U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 13 Recreational Catch Surveys • Strengths • Statistical surveys of recreational catch and effort (e.g. MRIP and LPS) reduce bias in the dataset • Headboat surveys are good at monitoring fishing effort • Concerns • Little or no observer verification of reported information • Size and age of catch are needed but not collected • Released fish are primarily self-reported • Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS) • Self-reported landings • Highly Migratory Species phone survey • Low participation rates • Self-reported catch information U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 14 Recreational Catch Survey Issues (landings and releases) • Nearly all catch and effort data are self-reportedLittle or no observer verification of catch and effort information • Surveys are very difficult and expensive to monitor recreational fisheries • Surveys are intended to cover large areas that may not be similar (for example, there are five regions in Florida- NE, SE, Florida Keys, SW, NW) U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 15 Released Catch Survey Data Sources: Self-reported Commercial – most fisheries Recreational – MRIP, LPS, SRHS Scientific observers • NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC): • GOM: shrimp, reef fish, bottom longline, gillnet, pelagic longline • Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Foundation: South Atlantic vertical line survey (commercial bandit and rod and reel fisheries) • MRIP(NOAA): for-hire • Florida (FWC): for-hire U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 16 Released Commercial Catch Comparison of self-reported vs observed data Observer data provides a picture of numbers released compared to self-reported estimates U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 17 The Florida Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket Program • Commercial fisheries landings and fishing effort data have been collected by the state of Florida since November 1984. • Florida law (Chapter 379.362(6), and Administrative Code 68E-5.002) requires that all sales of seafood products from the waters of Florida must be reported on a Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket at the time of sale. • Trip tickets include information about the harvester, the dealer purchasing the product, the date of the transaction, the county in which the species was landed, time fished, and pounds of each species landed for each trip. Completed tickets are mailed to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Questions?