Exercise 3, p. 37. Complete the sentences with your own words. What do you notice about the verb tenses in blue? In which sentences do the situations continue from the past until now? 1. I got up ______________at (time) today. 2. I have been____________ awake since (time). 3. I am studying English grammar in this class. I have come to this class _____________ (number) times so far this month. 4. I took my first English class in ____________ (year). Exercise 4, p.39 Complete the sentences with since or for. 1. There has been snow on the ground __New Year’s Day. 2. The weather has been cold __a long time. 3. Maria has studied English __less than a year. 4. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts have been together __they were in college. 5. They have known each other __more than fifty years. 6. We haven’t seen Aziz __last month. 7. I ’ve had a cold __ over a week. 8. I haven’t heard from my sister __ the beginning of March. 1. since 2. for 3. for 4. since 5. for 6. since 7. for 8. since Exercise 7, p. 40 Underline the present perfect verbs. What is the time frame in each situation? 1. So far this week, I ’ve had two tests and a quiz. And it’s only Wednesday! 2. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You’ve already missed too many classes. 3. I’m really hungry. I haven’t eaten since I got up. 4. Nadia started her homework right after dinner, but she still hasn’t finished it. She probably won’t be able to go to bed until after midnight. 1. ’ve had(from the beginning of the week to now (Wed.) 2. ’ve missed (from the beginning of the term to now) 3. haven’t eaten(from the time speaker got up to now) 4. hasn’t finished(from right after dinner to now) Exercise 7, p. 40 5. A: Hi, Judy. Welcome to the party. Have you ever met my cousin? B: No, I haven’t. 6. A: Do you like lobster? B: I don’t know. I ’ve never eaten it. 7. A: How did you like the book I lent you? B: Gosh, I’m sorry, but I haven’t read it yet. I haven’t had time. 5. have me t . . . haven’t (unspecified time) 6. I’ve eaten(unspecified time) 7. haven’t read . . . haven’t had(from the time she/he got the book up to now) Exercise 13, p. 43 Complete the sentences. Use the simple past or the present perfect form of the verbs in parentheses. 1. Fatima is from a hot, arid part of her country. She (see, never) _____ snow. 2. Last January, I (see) _____ snow for the first time in my life. 3. Last night my friend and I (have) ____ some free time, so we (go)____ to a show. 4. Since classes began, I (have, not) ___ much free time. My classes keep me really busy. 1. has never seen 2. saw 3. had . . . went 4. haven’t had Exercise 13, p. 43 5. Ming Won (be) ____in this class for three months. His English is getting better and better. He plans to take this class until the end of May. 6. Mrs. Perez (be) ____in our class for three months, but then she left school to get a job. 7. Late-breaking news! A major earthquake (occur, just) ____ in southern California. It (occur) _____ at 9:25 A.M. Pacific Standard Time. 8. I admit that I (get*) ____ older since I last (see) _____ you, but with any luck at all, I (get, also) ____ wiser. 5. has been 6. was 7. has just occurred . . . occurred 8. have gotten . . . saw . . . am also getting Exercise 13, p. 43 9. A: Are you taking Chemistry 101 this semester? B: No, I (take, already**) ____it. I (take) _____ it last semester. This semester I’m in 102. 10. Greg Adams? Yes, I know him. I (know) ____ him since college. 11. Joe North passed away? I’m sorry to hear that. I (know)_____ him well when we were in college together. 9. have already taken . . . took 10. have known 11. knew Exercise 15, p. 45 Warm-up Look at the picture in your book page 45. Check ( / ) each correct sentence. NOTE: One sentence in each group is incorrect. 1. Anita is at the bus stop. a. ___ She is waiting for the bus. b. ___ She is waiting for the bus for fifteen minutes. c. ___ She has been waiting for the bus for fifteen minutes. 2. Tarik is at the bus stop too. a. ___He is standing beside Anita. b. ___He is standing there since five o’clock. c. ___He has been standing there since five o’clock. 1 a, c 2 a, c Exercise 16, p.47 Complete the sentences. Use the present progressive or the present perfect progressive form of the verbs in parentheses. 2. The test begins at 1:00. Right now it’s 11:00. Sara is at the library. She (review) _____her notes right now. She (review) _____ her notes all morning. 3. Marco is in a store. He (stand) _______at a checkout counter right now. He (stand) ______ there for over five minutes. He wishes he could find a salesperson. He wants to buy a pair of jeans. 2. is reviewing . . . has been reviewing 3. is standing . . . has been standing Exercise 16, p.47 4. The little girl is dirty from head to foot because she (play) ________in the mud. 5. The children are excited about the concert. They (practice) _______ a lot in the last few weeks. They’re going to sing for their parents. 6. My back hurts, so I (sleep) ____ on a pad on the floor lately. The bed is too soft. 4. has been playing 5. have been practicing 6. have been sleeping Exercise 19, p. 48 Complete the sentences. Use the verb in italics in the first sentence of each item to complete the remaining sentence(s). Use the present perfect or the present perfect progressive. In some sentences, either verb form is correct. 4. Toshi is waiting for his friend. He _______for her since five o’clock. She’s late for their date. 5. I like cowboy movies. I _____cowboy movies ever since I was a child. 6. Susie is watching a cowboy movie. She ______ it for over two hours without a break. 4. has been waiting □ 5. have liked 6. has been watching Exercise 19, p. 48 7. Dr. Chang teaches math. He is an excellent teacher. He _____ math at this school for more than 25 years. 8. Sue and Rick are playing tennis right now and they’re getting tired. They ____ since nine o’clock this morning. Sue’s winning. She’s the better tennis player. She _____ tennis since she was ten. Rick started playing only last year. 7. has been teaching / has taught 8. have been playing . . . has been playing / has played Exercise 22. Warm-up, p. 49 Each of the following talks about two events. Which event happened first? 1. The teacher stood up. Someone had knocked on the classroom door. 2. I looked at the chalkboard. The teacher had written my name there. 1. Someone had knocked . . 2. The teacher had written . Exercise 23, p. 51 Use the simple past or the past perfect form of the verbs in parentheses to complete the sentences. In some cases, either tense is correct. 2 . I (feel) ______a little better after (take) ______the medicine. 3. I was late. The teacher (give, already) _____ a quiz when I (get) ____ to class. 4. It was raining hard, but by the time class (be) _____ over, the rain (stop) ____ . 2. felt. . . took □ 3, had already given . . . got 4. was . . . had stopped Exercise 23, p. 51 5. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam) _____the earth, but they (become) ______ extinct by the time people first (appear)______. 6. I (see, never) _____ any of Picasso’s paintings before I (visit) ____ the art museum. 7. After work, I went to Rosa’s office to give her a ride home, but I couldn’t find her. She (leave) _____with someone else. 5. roamed . . . became / had become . . . appeared 6 had never seen . . . visited 7. had left/left Exercise 23, p. 51 8. I got ready to pay the bill, but when I (look) _____ in my pocket, I discovered that I (leave) _____my wallet at home. With some embarrassment, I told my friend that I ( forget) ____my wallet. She kindly (offer) _______to pay my part of the bill for me. 9. Yesterday at a meeting, I (see) ______Rick Collins, an old friend of mine. I (see, not) ____him in years. At first, I (recognize, not) _____him because he (lose) ___ a great deal of weight. 8. looked . . . had le ft. . . had forgotten. . . offered 9. saw . . . had not seen . . . didn’t recognize . . . had lost Exercise 23, p. 51 10. In 1980, my parents (emigrate) __________ to the United States from China. They (travel, never) _________ outside of China and were, of course, excited by the challenge of relocating to a foreign country. Eventually, they (settle) _________ in California. My sister and I were born there and (grow) __________ up there. Last year, I (go) __________ to China for the first time to study at Beijing University. I (want, always) ________ to visit China and learn more about my own family background. My dreams finally came true. 10. emigrated . . . had never traveled . .. settled . . . grew.. . went . . . had always wanted Exercise 24, p.52 Underline the past perfect verbs. Which of the passages is typical of fiction writing? Which of the passages is typical of spoken English? What are the differences in verb form usage? 1. The thief simply walked in. Mrs. Garcia had forgotten to lock the door. Her son’s school had called to say that he was ill, so she had rushed out the door without thinking to lock it. 1. had forgotten . . . had called . . . had rushed (Fiction writing uses more past perfect.) Exercise 24, p.52 2. Hey, Anna! Did you hear? A thief got into Mrs. Garcia’s house. Yeah. She forgot to lock the door. The school called and told her that her son was sick, so she rushed out the door without locking it. 2. no past perfect verbs (Spoken English uses more past tense.) Exercise 24, p.52 3. Sometime in 1995, Mr. Parvaz took a long, hard look at his life. He had had the same job for almost three decades. His dear wife had passed away. His children had grown and moved away. So he quit his job, packed everything he owned, and moved to London. That was the beginning of his adventure. 3. had had . . . had passed away . . . had grown (Fiction writing uses more past perfect.) [Note: moved could be either had moved or moved. If past perfect, the second had does not need to be repeated.] Exercise 30, p.55 Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect progressive or the past perfect progressive form of the verbs in parentheses. 3. It is midnight. I (study) ___ for five straight hours. No wonder I’m getting tired. 4. It was midnight. I (study) ___for five straight hours. No wonder I was getting tired. 3. have been studying 4. had been studying Exercise 30, p.55 5. Jack suddenly realized that the teacher was asking him a question. He couldn’t answer because he (daydream) ____ for the last ten minutes. 6. Wake up! You (sleep) ____ long enough. It’s time to get up. 5. had been daydreaming 6. have been sleeping Exercise 31, p.56 Complete the sentences. Use the past perfect progressive form of the verbs in the list (or your own words). dance draw look play sing study talk Situation : M s . Reed, a teacher, left the classroom for fifteen minutes. During that time, her students did whatever they wanted. When she back, . . . . 2. She found out that a couple of students _____on cell phones. 3. Someone told her that one student ____ loud music. 4. She heard that several students ____in the aisles. 5. She found out that a group of students ___in her grade book. 6. She saw that a couple of students ____pictures on the board. 7. She happily discovered that a few students ___ the whole time. 2. had been talking 5. had been looking 3. had been playing 6. had been drawing 4. had been dancing 7. had been studying Exercise 34, p.58 Correct the errors. 1. Since I came to this country, I am learning a lot about the way of life here. 2. I arrive here only a short time ago. I am here since last Friday. 1. Since I came to this country, I have learned / have been learning a lot about the way o f life here. 2. I arrived here only a short time ago. I have been here since last Friday. Exercise 34, p.58 3. How long you been living here? I been here for almost two years. 4. Why you no have been in class for the last couple of days? 3. How long have you been living here? I have been here for almost two years. 4. Why haven’t you been in class for the last couple o f days? Exercise 34, p.58 5. I am coaching a soccer team for the last two months. 6. My grandfather had lived in a small village in Italy when he was a child. At nineteen, he had moved to Rome, where he had met and had married my grandmother in 1957. My father had been born in Rome in 1960. I am born in Rome in 1989. 5. I have been coaching a soccer team for the last two months. 6. My grandfather lived in a small village in Italy when he was a child. At nineteen, he moved to Rome, where he met and married d my grandmother in 1957. My father was born in Rome in 1960. I was born in Rome in 1989. Exercise 34, p.58 7. I’m living in my cousin’s apartment since I have arrived here. It very small, and we are sharing the bedroom. I am needing my own place, but I don’t find one so far. 7. I have been living in my cousin’s apartment since I arrived here. It is very small, and we are sharing the bedroom. I need my own place, but I haven’t found one so far. Exercise 34, p.58 8. When I was a child, I had lived with my grandmother instead of my parents. Grandpa has die before I am born, so I never knew him. Grandma raised me alone. 8. When I was a child, I lived with my grandmother instead of my parents. Grandpa had died / died before I was born, so I never knew him. Grandma raised me alone.