Acid Mine Drainage

Report
Acid Mine Drainage
Visual Environmental Education Guide
The Problem
Basic definition:
-The overflow of acidic water from abandoned coal mines
(Websters Dictionary)
Image from: http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/42656972.jpg
Examples of Acid Mine Drainage
Image from:
http://www.aeepartnership.org/acid_mine_drainage.php
Image from:http://chemcollective.org/AMD/Amd.html
Overview of Chemical
Reactions Occurring
 Main chemical reaction: the oxidization of pyrite (FeS2)
 The 3 main chemical products formed in acid mine drainage
reactions are:
 Ferrous iron and sulfuric acid
 Ferric iron
 Eventually turns into iron hydroxide
First Chemical Reaction:
Oxidization of Pyrite
+2
FeS + O + H O –> Fe + H SO
2
2
2
2
4
or (pyrite + dissolved oxygen + water) -> (ferrous iron + sulfuric acid)
Second Chemical Reaction:
Oxidization of Soluble Iron
+2
+
+3
Fe + O + H –> Fe + H O
2
2
or (ferrous iron + oxygen +hydronium) -> (ferric iron + water)
Third Chemical Reaction:
Precipitation of Insoluble Iron
+3
+
Fe + H O –> Fe(OH) + H
2
3
or (ferric iron + water) -> (iron hydroxide + hydronium )
Image from: http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/kirby/AMD.html
The Importance of the pH of Water
 Water’s average pH is 7, which is basic
 Acid mine drainage can make water’s pH as low as 2.5
Image from: http://pa.water.usgs.gov/projects/energy/amd/images/fig3b.gif
Possible Forms of Treatment
Passive Treatment
1)
 Artificial Wetland Construction
Active Treatment
2)

Chemical additives

Limestone or
carbonate
neutralization
Image from: http://ots.blogs.bucknell.edu/files/2010/09/IMG_33691.jpg
Mining Practices in the
Susquehanna Valley Region
Image
from:http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres
/bmr/annualreport/2010/Photo_Coming_out_of_the_
mine.jpg
Image
from:http://www.airphotona.com/stockimg/images/00478.jpg
Map of Rivers/Streams Affected by
Acid Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania
Image from:http://pa.water.usgs.gov/projects/energy/amd/images/amdmap.gif
Regional Treatment Programs
Image from:http://www.wpcamr.org/
Image from: http://epcamr.org/home/
The Shamokin Creek Story
Image from:http://farm4.staticflickr.com3591/3502701636_db54cf068f_z.jpg
The Shamokin Creek Watershed Map
Image from: http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/kirby/WshedMap.html
Example of a Local Resource:
Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance
Image from:http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/kirby/
0SCRAnewHome/SCRAhome.htm
Sources
http://pa.water.usgs.gov/projects/energy/amd/
http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/AMDPostMortem.html
http://epcamr.org/home/current-initiatives/
http://www.wpcamr.org/
http://www.shamokincreek.org/
http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/marsh/susquehanna/ehga.pdf
http://reclamationresearch.net/publications/Final_Lit_Review_AMD.pdf
http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/kirby/AMDPrimer.html

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