Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D. The Intercultural Development Inventory

Report
The Intercultural
Development Inventory®
(IDI® Qualifying Seminar
Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI,
NIGHT ARRIVES
LLC, used with permission Copyright, 2007, 2009 Mitchell R.
BETWEEN EUROPE & AFRICA
Hammer, Ph.D.
When my father and mother applied for a job . . .
They competed with people in the city they liv
When I applied for a job . . .
I competed with people living in the country
I lived
When my children apply for a job . . .
They compete against the world
Andres Tapias, Keynote presentation given at the IDI, LLC
annual conference, 2010, St. Paul, MN
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer,
Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission
This Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI®)
 Cross-culturally validated assessment of intercultural competence
 50 item questionnaire, “back translated” into 14 languages, available online
and in paper versions
 Includes open-ended questions & ability to add six unique questions
 Customized to Educational and Organizational applications
 Able to produce customized individual, group, sub-group and organizationwide IDI profile reports
 All Individual IDI profile reports accompanied by customized, Intercultural
Development Plans
 IDI is cross-culturally validated with over 10,000 individuals across a wide
range of cultures—both domestic & international diversity
 No cultural bias and not “transparent” (i.e., no social desirability)
 Demonstrated content, construct and predictive validity in organizations and in
educational institutions
 Over 60 published articles & book chapters & 66 Ph.D. dissertations
 Used by 1,800 qualified IDI administrators in 30 countries
Copyright, 2007-2014 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.
How to Use the IDI to Build Intercultural
Competence
Individual:
• Development
• Leadership coaching
Applications:
Classroom/team:
• Training, classroom learning
• Team/group development
Organizational:
• Program evaluation
• Research
• Policy/Strategy revision
Restricted use:
• Selection
• Baseline/benchmarking/needs
analysis
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Diversity, Inclusion & Intercultural
Competence
• Presence of
differences
Diversity: The
Who
Assessed by representation
(e.g., how many . . . )
Inclusion: The
What
• Leveraging
differences to
increase
contributions &
opportunities for all
Assessed by outcomes
(e.g., climate, tenure
turnover, conflict)
• “How” to achieve
Diversity
representation &
Inclusion goals
Intercultural
Competence:
The How
Assessed by the IDI
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Diversity: The Who
Local
Global
Domestic
International
Regional/Pan-national
(e.g., Arab)
National
Ethnic/Race
Other “Group” Diversities:
Gender, physical abilities, sexual orientation, profession,
age/generational
Copyright, 1998-2013, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Inclusion: The What
A key leadership goal in getting diverse resources in
the organization
A key leadership goal on maximizing contributions
from diverse resources
Involves leadership creating organizational processes
that enhance performance, motivation, creativity and
satisfaction across the diversity mosaic
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Intercultural Competence: The How
 The capability to shift cultural perspective and
adapt—or bridge--behavior to cultural
commonality & difference
 Deep cultural self-awareness
 Deep understanding of the experiences of people
from different cultural communities—in
perceptions, values, beliefs, behavior and practices
 Behavioral shifting across these various cultural
differences
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Intercultural Competence Development
Focuses on . . .
Eliminating interpretations
& behavior based on
stereotypes
Increasing interpretations &
behavior based on cultural
generalizations/frameworks
Evaluative
overgeneralizations, personal
traits assigned to group
Neutral, relative descriptions
of a group’s preferences
Stereotypes support less
complex perceptions &
experience of cultural
differences & commonalities
Cultural generalizations
support more complex
perceptions & experience of
cultural differences &
commonalities
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Two Ways of Thinking about Culture:
Objective vs. Subjective Culture
Dance
Customs
Food
Art & Music
Language
Objective
Roles
Subjective
Games & Sport
Social
Expectations
Myths
Beliefs
Values
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Intercultural Competence is focused on
Subjective Culture
Learned
Out-of-Awareness
& Deeply Ingrained
Subjective
Culture:
Shared
Shared perceptions
& behavior of a
group of people
Think
Feel
Behave
Varies by
individual
Central preferences (norms) in a
community define “what culture is”
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Intercultural Competence is IMPORTANT & Central
to Team Performance
Distefano’s research compared the performance of homogenous
and diverse teams
Number of Teams
Monocultural
Teams
Multicultural
Teams
Multicultural
Teams
Performance
Leaders ignore and
suppress cultural differences
Leaders acknowledge and
support cultural differences
Cultural differences become
an obstacle to performance
Cultural differences become
an asset to performance
Reference: Distefano, J.J., Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management, Organisational Dynamics, Vol 29, No. 1, pp 45-63, 2000
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Unlike Other Approaches . . .
 The IDI assesses intercultural competence along
the Intercultural Development Continuum
 (Adapted from the DMIS model (Bennett, 1986; 1993)
 This assessment tool & model is:
 Holistic—assesses mind/action sets; not individual
personality, knowledge, attitude or skill dimensions
 Developmental—not typological
 Interculturally grounded—explains how individuals
and/or group experience cultural differences &
commonalities
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Why the IDI is Different from Other
Assessments Tools:
Interculturally Competent Practices . . .
Occur at a level supported by the
individual’s underlying developmental
orientation
Training, education & leadership
development efforts at building intercultural
competence are more successful when
focused on the individual’s underlying
developmental orientation
As assessed by the IDI
Copyright, 2007-2014 Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D.
Intercultural Development Continuum
Deeply
Comprehends
Difference
Bridges across
Difference
Deemphasizes
Difference
Judges
Difference
Misses
Difference
Intercultural
Mindset
Adaptation
Acceptance
Minimization
Polarization
Denial
Monocultural
Mindset
Cultural
Sense of disconnection
Disengagement from a primary
Scale
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
cultural community
Modified from the Developmental
Model of Intercultural Sensitivity
(DMIS), M. Bennett, 1986
Four Most Common Questions about the IDI
Is it biased?
NO: Multi-cultural
item generation
Step 6: Finalize
scales,
reliability &
validity testing
Step 1: Conduct
cross-cultural
interviews
Step 5: Select
“best” items
from
Confirmatory
Factor Analysis
Who does it apply to?
Breadth—across wide variety
of cultural groups
Is it accurate?
YES: Construct, content
validity & high reliability
Step 2: Generate
intercultural
items
Step 4: Crosscultural “expert
panel” review
Step 3: Pilot test
with
intercultural
sample
Is it predictive of results?
YES: Criterion validity
shown on bottom-line
organization results
Copyright, 1998-2014, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
The Higher the Staffing Team’s IDI Score—the
More Successful in Hiring Diverse Talent
14
Greater
Diversity
Hiring
12
Team 6
Team 5
10
8
Team 3 Team 4
6
Team 2
4
Less
Diversity
Hiring
Team 1
2
0
Polarization
(Defense /
Reversal)
Minimization
Acceptance
Copyright, 1998-2013, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
IDI Predictive Validity in Study
Abroad
Greater intercultural
competence predicts:
Increased
knowledge, interest
in other cultures
Less intercultural
anxiety
More intercultural
friendships
Higher study
abroad satisfaction
Hammer, M.R. (2011). Additional cross-cultural validity testing of the Intercultural
Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 474-487.
Copyright, 1998-2013, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with
Instrument Development Criteria
1.
Testing confirmed the underlying theoretical framework of the IDI—the Intercultural Development Continuum or IDC (e.g., high
IDI Fully
Meets
Criteria
✔
inter-rater reliabilities based on in-depth interview analysis & correlational analysis)
1.
IDI items reflect perspectives of people from a wide range of international and domestic cultural groups (e.g., through in-depth
✔
interviews)
1.
IDI does not contain cultural bias (e.g., initial pool of items generated from statements made by culturally diverse
✔
interviewees—not by the researchers)
1.
IDI validity and reliability results confirmed in large, multicultural samples—over 10,000 individuals (e.g., using rigorous
✔
Confirmatory Factor Analysis in item/scale analysis)
1.
IDI has strong “content” validity (e.g., initial item pool generated from actual statements made by interviewee’s from a wide-
✔
range of cultural groups & Expert Panel Review used to narrow item pool—with high inter-rater reliabilities)
1.
IDI has strong “construct” validity (IDI Orientations correlated as predicted to Worldmindedness (cognitive measure) and
✔
Intercultural Anxiety (affective measure)
1.
IDI has strong “predictive” validity in organizations (e.g., IDI predictive of success in diversity recruitment and hiring)
✔
1.
IDI has strong “predictive” validity in education (e.g., IDI predictive of achievement of study abroad outcomes)
✔
1.
IDI Developmental Orientation and Perceived Orientation scores are highly reliable (.82, .83, coefficient alpha & all sub-scales
✔
achieved satisfactory reliabilities)
1.
Readability analysis of the IDI indicates the IDI is appropriate for individuals 15 years of age or higher)
✔

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