Cheese Production

Report
Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D.
May 2014
What is Cheese?
Frozen Desserts
Ice Cream
Gelato
Sherbet
Other
Flavored Milks
Pudding
Creams
Butter
Fermented Products
Yogurt
Buttermilk
Acidophilus Milk
Kefir, Koumiss
Sour Cream
Cream Cheese
Cheddar, Colby
Mozzarella, Provolone
& Italian types
Emmental, Gruyere
& Swiss types
Brie, Camembert
Blue cheeses
Munster, Brick
Dairy Fermentation
Bacteria
Milk + Molds
Yeasts
Microbial
Processing
+
Metabolism Conditions
Products
with a
Variety
of Flavors,
Textures &
End Uses
Variables in Cheesemaking
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Type of cheese
Type of milk
Milk composition
Heat treatment
Microorganisms used
Time
Temperature
pH
Salting method
Other handling
Other ingredients
• Environment
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sanitation
water quality
native flora (good & bad)
storage temperature
storage humidity
• Production consistency
– acidity development
– flavor & texture
Defining Varieties …
By Manufacturing Technique
By Cheese Characteristics
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Acid set
Rennet set
Fresh/Aged
Cheddar type
Pasta filata
Cheese with eyes
Natural rind
Washed-rind
Mold-ripened
Fresh
Semi-soft
Soft-ripened
Surface-ripened
Semi-hard
Hard
Blue
Washed-rind
Milk type (cow, goat, sheep)
How can you govern a country
that has 246 varieties of cheese?
Charles de Gaulle
French President, 1958-1969
2013: 1794 entries (cheese, yogurt, butter),
100 categories
2012: World Championship, 2504 entries, 81 categories
2013: US Championship, 1702 entries, 81 categories
2014: World Championship, 2619 entries, 90 categories
(cheese, butter)
Cheese Standards
• Code of Federal Regulations
– 21 CFR 133
• http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.
cfm?cfrpart=133
– contains Standards of Identity (SoI) for many cheeses
– regulations can be very specific on cheese composition,
make procedures and ingredients
• Pennsylvania Code
– Title 7 Part III Ch. 57
– § 57.71 Cheese and related cheese products
• Cheese and related cheese products shall comply with 21 CFR
133 (relating to cheese and related cheese products).
Cheddar Cheese Standard
21 CFR 133.113
Cheese – Pasteurized or Raw
7 CFR 58
General Cheese Making Steps
Raw Milk
Pasteurize/Heat
Inoculate with Starter & Non-Starter Bacteria and Ripen
Add Rennet and Form Coagulum
Cut Curd & Cook
Drain Whey
Texture Curd
Dry Salt/Brine
Form Cheeses
Store and Age
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Setting Milk
Prepare milk for coagulation
Ripen starter culture
Coagulation
Temperature
Protein
Calcium
Sanitation (phage)
Coagulation
Acid Coagulation
Rennet Coagulation
• Function of isoelectric properties
• at pH 6.6 the net charge on the
proteins is negative, casein
micelles repel
• pH 4.6 is the isoelectric point and
the net charge is neutral, casein
micelles interact
• soft, delicate curds
• Function of enzyme activity
• 1st step cleaves -casein
– net negative charge is reduced
– steric repulsion is decreased
• 2nd step requires ionic (free) Ca
– Ca forms bridges to stabilize
the aggregation
– at lower pH, the casein micelles are
depleted of Ca
• firmer, stronger curds
– at higher pH, the Ca is still present in
the casein micelles
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Setting Milk
Prepare milk for coagulation
Ripen starter culture
Rennet coagulation
Temperature
Protein
Calcium
Sanitation (phage)
Cutting the
Curd
Speed whey expulsion
Assist in uniform cooking
Assist with moisture control
Curd firmness
Size of curd particles
Uniformity of curd particles
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Setting Milk
Prepare milk for coagulation
Ripen starter culture
Rennet coagulation
Temperature
Protein
Calcium
Sanitation (phage)
Cutting the
Curd
Speed whey expulsion
Assist in uniform cooking
Assist with moisture control
Curd firmness
Size of curd particles
Uniformity of curd particles
Cooking the
curd
Remove whey
Curd size
Establish moisture level in cheese Time & temperature profile
Influence texture
Stirring rate
pH
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Setting Milk
Prepare milk for coagulation
Ripen starter culture
Rennet coagulation
Temperature
Protein
Calcium
Sanitation (phage)
Cutting the
Curd
Speed whey expulsion
Assist in uniform cooking
Assist with moisture control
Curd firmness
Size of curd particles
Uniformity of curd particles
Cooking the
curd
Remove whey
Curd size
Establish moisture level in cheese Time & temperature profile
Influence texture
Stirring rate
pH
Draining or
Dipping
Separate whey from curds
Moisture control
pH
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Curd Knitting
Form characteristic texture
Acid development
Moisture control
Temperature
Time
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Curd Knitting
Form characteristic texture
Acid development
Moisture control
Temperature
Time
Pressing
Expel whey
Shape cheese
Influence texture
Temperature
Pressure
Acidity development
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Curd Knitting
Form characteristic texture
Acid development
Moisture control
Temperature
Time
Pressing
Expel whey
Shape cheese
Influence texture
Temperature
Pressure
Acidity development
Salting
Influence flavor
Influence texture
Control moisture
Method of salting
Curd size
Temperature
Major Steps in Cheese Making
Step
Purpose
Key Factors
Curd Knitting
Form characteristic texture
Acid development
Moisture control
Temperature
Time
Pressing
Expel whey
Shape cheese
Influence texture
Temperature
Pressure
Acidity development
Salting
Influence flavor
Influence texture
Control moisture
Method of salting
Curd size
Temperature
Special
Applications
Apply appropriate practices to
give cheese its characteristics
(pasta filata, mold-ripened,
washed-rind, aged)
Depends on the application
Flavoring Cheese
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Herbs
Spices
Fruit pieces
Vegetable pieces
Smoke
Beer
Wine
(Microbial smears)
www.images.google.com
Washed-Rind Cheese
• Outer surface flavor & color
– beer
• Chimay Ale
– wine
• Drunken Goat
• Complex flavor & rind development
– microbial smears (Brevibacterium linens)
– yeasts
– sequence of organism development
– specific to organisms used
Cheese Aging = Affinage
• The ripening of a young cheese to a mature cheese
– development of complex flavors and textures
Cheese Aging
• Cheese Variables
– cheese type
– microflora
• Environment Variables
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temperature
humidity
air flow
air turnover
shelving type
proximity to other
cheeses
– native flora
– sanitation
• Handling
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time
turning
brushing
washing
sanitation
Cheese Aging – Environmental
Conditions
• Drying
– 57-64°F, 60-80% RH
• Ripening
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52-77°F, natural rind cheeses
46-52°F, bloomy cheeses
46-48°F, blue cheeses
90-98% RH, natural rind cheeses
• Warm (eye development)
– 68-72°F, 80-85% RH
• Cool storage
– 38-48°F, flavor development
– 38-40°F, 60-80% RH, storage prior to sale
– 90-95% RH, natural rind cheeses
Cheddar Type Cheese Make Steps
Lactococcus lactis
subsp. lactis or cremoris
Raw Milk
Lactobacillus casei,
Lactobacillus plantarum
Pasteurize/Heat
Inoculate with Starter & Non-Starter Bacteria and Ripen
Add Rennet and Form Coagulum
Cut Curd & Cook
Wash curd for
Colby & Jack
pH 6.4
100°F (38°C)
Drain Whey
Texture Curd
1 month
to 5+ years
86-90°F
(30-32°C)
Dry Salt
Cheddaring & Milling
OR
Stirred Curd
pH 5.1 – 5.5
Form Cheeses
Store and Age
Hoop & Press
Cheese with Eyes Make Steps
S. thermophilus, L. helviticus
L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
Raw Milk
Proprionibacterium
freudenreichi
Pasteurize/Heat
Inoculate with Starter & Non-Starter Bacteria and Ripen
Add Rennet and Form Coagulum
Cut Curd & Cook
curd is pressed in hoops,
acid begins to form
pH 5.1-5.2
1-2 wk, 60°F (15°C) drying
3-7 wk, 70-77°F (21-25°C)
eye formation
4-12 wk, 41°F (5°C) aging
Drain Whey
Texture Curd
Form Cheeses
Brine
Store and Age
118-135°F (48-52°C)
rapid cook
pH 6.4
cheeses placed in hoops
before draining
60°F (15°C), 2 d
Blue Veined Cheese Make Steps
Raw Milk
L. lactis subsp. lactis
L. lactis subsp. cremoris
Penicillium roqueforti spores
Pasteurize/Homogenize/Heat
Inoculate with Starter & Non-Starter Bacteria and Ripen
Add Rennet and Form Coagulum
Cut Curd & Cook
Dip Curd/Form Cheese
Drain Whey
ripen and cure
50-60°F (10-15°C), 95% RH
mold growth 2-4 mo
cure 2-4 mo
1 hr
90°F (32°C)
firm curd, open texture
put into hoops
drain 1-7 d,
68°F (20°C), 80% RH
Dry Salt/Brine
pierce with needles
Texture Curd
Store and Age
?
Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D.
Dairy Foods Research & Extension Associate
Pennsylvania State University
Department of Food Science
[email protected]
814-867-1379
foodscience.psu.edu

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