PowerPoint Template

Report
13/14 Spring Semester
Energy
(TKK-2129)
Instructor: Rama Oktavian
Email: [email protected]
Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11
Outlines
1. Biomass energy: Intro
2. Biomass energy sources
3. Biomass to energy technology
4. Recent update on biomass energy
Biomass energy: Intro
Biomass energy: Intro
What is it??
organic material made from plants and animals
contains stored energy from the sun
Plants absorb the sun's energy in a process called photosynthesis. The chemical
energy in plants gets passed on to animals and people that eat them
Biomass energy: Intro
What is it considered as renewable??
we can always grow more trees and crops, and waste will always exist. Some
examples of biomass fuels are wood, crops, manure, and some garbage.
When it is burned, chemical energy is released as heat
It can also be burned to produce steam for electricity generation
Biomass energy: Intro
Advantages
Most of them are renewable and abundant
Solve energy crisis in the future – reduce dependency on fossil fuel
High energy efficiency
Generally it does not polluted the atmosphere as much as oil and coal
Reduce landfill
Biomass energy: Intro
Disadvantages
More serious air pollution was found when
burning plants matters, e.g: particulate
matter from solid
Emission some toxic gases and ash
It takes too much energy to collect, dry
and transport
Cutting too many woods is a kind of
deforestation can cause soil erosion and
natural disasters
It uses large area to grow biomass
Food security problem will arise
Biomass energy: Resources
http://cdn2.blogmost.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Biomass.jpg
Biomass energy: Resources
Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia
NO
NON FOSSIL ENERGY
RESOURCES
(SD)
INSTALLED
CAPACITY (KT)
RATIO KT/SD
(%)
1
2
3
4
5 = 4/3
1
Hydro
75,670 MW
6,654.29 MW
8,8%
2
Geothermal
29,038 MW
1,226 MW
4,2%
3
Mini/Micro Hydro
769.69 MW
228.983 MW
29,75%
4
Biomass
49,810 MW
1,618.40 MW
3,25 %
5
Solar Energy
4.80 kWh/m2/day
22.45 MW
-
6
Wind Energy
3 – 6 m/s
1.87 MW
-
7
Uranium
3,000 MW *)
30 MW **)
1.00
*) only in Kalan – West Kalimantan
**) non energy, only for research
Biomass energy: Resources
Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia
Animal Population (2010) in Indonesia and South Sumatera Province
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass energy: Resources
Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia
Agriculture Production (2010) in Indonesia
and South Sumatera Province (SSP)
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass energy: Resources
Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia
Plantation Production (2009) in Indonesia
and South Sumatera Province (SSP)
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass energy: Resources
Technical potential of biomass (from forest and estate)
Production : 12 million Ha
Total waste production : 1,15 billion ton/y (e.g. sugar mill, sawmill, rubber estate,
palm mill oil, copra production, rice mill etc).
Electricity production potential : 821 million MWh/y
Generating Power potential : 94,000 MW
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass energy: Resources
Technical potential of biomass (from forest and estate)
M.H. Hasan, T.M.I. Mahlia, Hadi Nur, A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 16 (2012) 2316– 2328
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass products
Chemicals such as methanol, fertilizer, and synthetic fiber
Energy such as heat
Electricity
Transportation fuel such as gasoline and diesel
Prabir Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Practical Design and Theory, Elsevier (2010).
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass conversion into energy
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass to energy technology
Example
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass to energy technology
Thermochemical conversion
Direct Combustion
Gasification
Pyrolysis
Prabir Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Practical Design and Theory, Elsevier (2010).
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass gasification
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass pyrolysis
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pyrolysis.html
Biomass to energy technology
Biochemical conversion
Digestion (anaerobic and aerobic)
Fermentation
Enzymatic or acid hydrolysis
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/images/biochemical_pathways.jpg
Biomass to energy technology
Example of biomass digestion
Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass digestion
Decompose biomass with microorganisms
- Closed tanks known as anaerobic digesters
- Produces methane (natural gas) and CO2
Methane-rich biogas can be used as fuel or as a base chemical for biobased products.
Used in animal feedlots, and elsewhere
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass digestion
http://www.tibbarconstruction.com/images/pic_biomass_process.jpg
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass digestion process
What kind of reactions occur in digester?
http://www.e-inst.com/biomass-to-biogas/
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fermentation
Process scheme
http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/centralgrasslandsrec/biofuels-research-1/janets_ethanol.jpg
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fermentation
Process scheme
1. Convert biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock
2. Ferment biomass intermediates using biocatalysts
- Microorganisms including yeast and bacteria;
3. Process fermentation product
- Yield fuel-grade ethanol and other fuels, chemicals, heat and/or electricity
http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/proj_biochemical_conversion.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Why??
First-generation biofuels are extracted from agricultural products: beetroot,
rape seed, etc. They compete with foodstuffs.
Concerns and constraints:
1. Compete with food crops
2. Expensive total production cost
3. Accelerating deforestation
4. The biomass feedstock may not be produced sustainably
5. Potentially has a negative impact on biodiversity
R. Sims, M. Taylor, J. Saddler, W. Mabee. 2008. From 1st to 2nd generation biofuel technologies, IEA
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Second-generation biofuels are produced using the inedible part of plants
(straw, wood, plant waste). Unlike first-generation biofuels, they do not
compete with the use of raw materials as food. They can be used directly by
traditional vehicles and considerably reduce CO2 emissions.
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Air Liquide is developing Bioliq®, a process that produces secondgeneration biofuels using straw in three successive stages:
1. The first step in the process consists of high-temperature pyrolysis of the
straw to convert it into synthetic crude: bioliqSynCrude®.
2. The second step consists of gasification, i.e. the transformation of the
synthetic crude into synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon
monoxide.
3. Through several chemical reactions, the Bioliq® process then converts
the synthesis gas into methanol or directly into biofuels.
The Bioliq® process can produce 1 liter of diesel from 7 kg of straw.
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Second-generation biofuels present an energy and environmental
advantage: they have a much better carbon footprint than other fuels: up to
90% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to mineral fuels and about 50%
compared to first-generation biofuels.
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html

similar documents