Presentazione ANIMP

Report
Ansaldo Energia: Gas Turbine an enabler for
intermittent power
Daniela Gentile
Ansaldo Energia Innovation and Product Development
Marsh Power Forum
Security of Supply
Istanbul, October 9-10th, 2013
Scenario
o Trends of Italian Electricity Market
o Future Scenario and Impact on Combined Cycle
Ansaldo Energia Activities & Solutions
o
o
o
o
Combustion Stability
Lifing & Materials
Control System
Instrumentation
Conclusion
TRENDS OF ITALIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET
ENERGY PRODUCTION SOURCES MIX
EVOLUTION FROM 2008 TO 2012
347
328
40
43
51
Imports
18
13
49
PV
Wind
Hydro and Geo
Thermal
251
205
72%
62%
2008
2012
Energy Production Sources in Italy, GWh
Source: Terna, Monthly Report on Electric
System
TRENDS OF ITALIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET
THERMAL POWER PLANTS MONTHLY ENERGY PRODUCTION
(ALL FUELS)
28,000
26,000
24,000
~ 6 GWh/month less
since 2008
GWh
22,000
20,000
18,000
16,000
12-month moving average
14,000
12,000
10,000
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: Terna, Monthly Report on Electric System
steady decrease of 3-4% per year since 2008
TRENDS OF ITALIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET
PEAK SHAVING: FROM AUGUST 2010 TO AUGUST 2013…
2010
2013
70%
45%
Source: Terna, Monthly Report on Electric System
…in 3 years thermal PP production share in peak hour
from 70% to 45%
FUTURE SCENARIO AND IMPACT ON COMBINED CYCLE
IMPACT OF THE NEW SCENARIO ON COMBINED CYCLE
 Efficiency Increase -> CO2 emission reduction
 Minimum Load Reduction -> to enable the feed in of additional RES
(renewable energy sources) without a loss of security of supply and grid stability
 Startup Time Reduction -> more gas fired power plants could start and stop
twice a day economically -> additional RES
 Load Ramp Rate Increase -> to promptly react to request or RES generation
variations, assuring grid stability and security
Scenario
o Trends of Italian Electricity Market
o Future Scenario and Impact on Combined Cycle
Ansaldo Energia Activities & Solutions
o
o
o
o
o
o
Combustion Stability
MEL
Grid Support
Start-Up time reduction
Material Lifing
Instrumentation
Conclusion
Flexibility Packages
Start-Up Time
Combustion Stability
Reduction
Flexibility
Packages
Grid Support
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
MEL
Flexibility Packages
Start-Up Time
Combustion Stability
Reduction
Flexibility
Packages
Grid Support
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
MEL
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
Combustion Stability
COMBUSTION STABILITY: SAS UP UPGRADING & TESTS
 Combustion Chamber cooling optimization
 Different burner configurations tested
Control Valves GV2-3
Variable setpoint connected with Load
& Ambient Temperature
Upgraded combustion system
Combustion Chamber
Internal housing Holes reduction to cool the brick
holders of the ceramic tiles
Burner Insert redesign
Holes reduction
TBC Increasing
Sealing Ring TV2 improved design
External Housing Combustion Chamber
Reduction diameter of the cooling holes
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
Combustion Stability
GT & CC PERFORMANCE (POWER & EFFICIENCY)
 TIT ISO Increase
TIT ISO
POWER MODE
ENVIRONMENTAL
MODE
20
30
40
NOx Emissions [mg/Nm3]
50
Helmholtz resonators in combustion chamber
To Control Thermoacoustic Phenomena in order to reduce Combustion Instability
• 1st prize Finmeccanica Innovation
Award 2013
• New improved design has been
tested on La Casella GT in 2012
• AEN patent under application
• Application on Escatron GT for
commercial operation on March 2014
Ansaldo Energia reserves all right on this document that cannot be
reproduced in any part without its previous written consent
12
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
9LS Diagonal swirler Dual Lines Premix Burner
Additional premix line : 20
nozzles
Dual Lines Pilot Burnerrner
 Premix line: 20 vanes, 9 holes each
 Diffusion Pilot
 4 feeding pipes
Premixed pilot
 4 holes pattern
Flexibility Packages
Start-Up Time
Combustion Stability
Reduction
Flexibility
Packages
Grid Support
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
MEL
AE94.3A4 Flexibility Packages: MEL
reduction
AE.94.3A4
HR3
NOx < 50 mg/Nm3
Emissions limits
NOx < 30 mg/Nm3
CO < 30 mg/Nm3
125 MW
- 30 MW
- 10-15 MW
- 3÷5 MW
- 8 MW
AE.94.3A2
HR3
165 MW
140 MW
AE.94.3A2
VeLoNOx
IGV extra closure
AE.94.3A4
VeLoNOx
CO Catalyst
Antiicing
Increasing Secondary Air
Flow at Min. Load
Regulating Blow-off
Ansaldo Energia reserves all right on this document that cannot be reproduced in any part without its previous written consent
MEL Reduction
 VeLoNOx
• New burner with increased and
optimized exhaust gas temperature
at partial load
78,0%
76,0%
2° stage
set-point
74,0%
72,0%
70,0%
68,0%
66,0%
64,0%
62,0%
-15
 Secondary Air Control (SAC)
0
60,0%
• Variable set point for cooling air flow
to GT blades, according to GT load
and ambient temperature
5
58,0%
15
56,0%
0
20
50
25
60
90
35
95
110
GT MEL
HR3
VeLoNOx
VeLoNOx + SAC
60-55 %
48%
43%
16
MEL Reduction
 Anti-icing
• Compressor bleed to reduce
mass flow and increase inlet
temperature
GT MEL
VeLoNOx
48%
VeLoNOx + SAC
43%
VeLoNOx + SAC + Anti-icing
37%
 CO Catalyst
• Cost for catalyst, installation and maintenance is paid
back by fuel saving
GT MEL
VeLoNOx
48%
VeLoNOx + SAC
43%
VeLoNOx + SAC + CO catalyst
30% - 35%
17
MEL Reduction by Regulating Blow-Off Lines
•
Goals: Minimum Load reduction according to pollutants
emission limits (MEL)
•
Selected Approach: compressor airflow by-passing burners to
sustain combustion temperature at Min Load
•
Proposed Solution: opening bleeding blow-off lines in
regulating mode
•
Numerical Analysis: GT 1d model + CFD
•
Field Testing: 5th stage BO line opening @ MEL
Expected performances validated by on-site field
measurements
(Customer 1 GT, May 2013)
D Power GT
[MW]
Dh GT
[%]
HRSG INLET TEMP
[°C]
FUEL SAVING
[KG/S]
-8
-1.4
-7.8
0.25
COMPARISON WITH TAMB=15°C AND SAME
CO CONCENTRATION
18 be
Ansaldo Energia reserves all right on this document that cannot
reproduced in any part without its previous written consent
MEL Evolution
2004
AE94.3A2
165
MW
2006 HyperClosure IGV
NOx < 25 ppm
150
MW
2007
AE94.3A4
135
MW
VeloNOx
Burner
2008
GV2 GV3
2011
125
MW
120
MW
NOx < 15 ppm
SAS
Upgraded
• SAS Upgrading
2012
• Regulating Blow Off
2013
110
MW
100
MW
•
•
•
2014
94
MW
SAS Upgrading
Anti-icing
Regulating Blow Off
Flexibility Packages
Start-Up Time
Combustion Stability
Reduction
Flexibility
Packages
Grid Support
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
MEL
LOAD GRADIENT – FEBRUARY 2013
•
•
•
Initial Target 32 MW/min from Minimum Load to 97 % Load
SAS Upgraded GT
NOx Target < 30 mg/Nm3
Load
115275 MW
32 MW/min
Load
115270 MW
42 MW/min
596% BL in 3’40’’
596% BL in 4’ 50 ’’
Combustion Dynamics
Target matched and improved : 42 MW/min with stable condition
Ansaldo Energia reserves all right on this document that cannot be reproduced in any part without its previous written consent
Combustion Dynamics
Grid Support Case Study: Congo Island Operation
 Scenario:
• Project ENI CONGO (Pointe Noire): Country
with high instability of grid frequency
• Load variation up to 40 MW
• Situations with no other power plants on
grid
 Solution:
Two AE94.2 Gas Turbines,
one in Load Control and one in Speed Control
Solution implemented
and successfully tested,
running from February,
2011
22
Grid Support: Voltage Regulation
Russia Case Study
 Scenario
• Supply of 11 GT to Russian market
Tuned
PSS
• Russian grid: extended and highly unstable.
Advanced PSS to comply with Russian regulation
• 81 Tests with different grid configurations at
NIIPT- Power Transmission Research Institute labs
 Solution
• PSS (Supplier Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali)
• Tuning based on Eigenvalues analysis in a
typical configuration of a 4 generators test case
required by Russian grid
Obtained Russian
EES Certification
23
Flexibility Packages
Start-Up Time
Combustion Stability
Reduction
Flexibility
Packages
Grid Support
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
MEL
FAST START UP TEST
95%IGV
Grad.22MW/min
125 MW
Grad. 13 MW/min
Grad.6.5 MW/min
30 MW
Flame on  95% IGV in 44’
Flame on  125 MW in 32’
Ansaldo Energia reserves all right on this document that cannot be
reproduced in any part without its previous written consent
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
Lifing / Materials
LIFING / MATERIALS: ST FLEXIBILITY IMPROVEMENTS
RSEOPT: Automatic off-line tool based on FEM calculation
Preprocessor:
HTC e Tbulk Calculation
Postprocessor:
LCF Calculation
FEM Calculation

pseudo elastic curve
  = C1
Cyclic stress – strain curve
B
Hysteresis stress - strain curve
(max , max )
D
stress
B
A
Test Campaign for
Material Properties
Neuber’s Hyperbola
D D = C2

A
C
D ep
Del
'
(min , min ) C D
ep
C
Power Plant
Start-up Curves
Analytical simplified model
Metal temperature & stress calculation
• Cycle identification: Rainflow counting
method
• LCF Life Consumption Calculation
•
Del
Results
• Temperature and Stress
History
• Life Consumption
Calculation
Conscious
ST Startup
Time
Reduction
New RSE on
Automation System
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
Control System
CONTROL SYSTEM PACKAGES
MEL
Ramp
Stability
Performance
X
X
HUMMING ACTIVE CONTROL
•Humming Monitoring to improve Combustion Stability Control Logic
•Acts on Fuel Valve & TETC control to prevent instability growth
EMISSIONS CONTROL
•Integration of exhaust composition measure in control logic
X
FUEL FLEXIBILITY
•Modify the control strategy to rapidly compensate the fuel quality
change
X
X
Cooling valves control optimization
•Cooling valves control optimization based on GT load
X
X
Tuning4seasons
•Gas / air control optimization based on ambient and operating
conditions
X
Antiicing control
•SW modification to enable compressor bleed antiicing for MEL
reduction
X
X
X
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
Lifing / Materials
LIFING / MATERIALS: GT BLADES & VANES
↑ Efficiency → ↑ TIT ISO
• Materials
• Coatings
• Coolings
Number of Starts (NS)
2
Cycling Increase
1
NS Limit
EOH Limit
Firing Hours
ANSALDO ENERGIA ACTIVITIES & SOLUTIONS
INSTRUMENTATION
Instrumentation
2013 -2014
Innovative humming measurement:
piezo or OH detection
More performance & flexibility
Mantova CCPP – 2013
Tip clearance measurements
More thermomechanical stress
It is essential to monitor the
functioning of the components
Innovative humming measurements
Micro waves tip clearance instrument
Rotor telemetry
measures
Thrust bearing
measurement
Voghera CCPP – 2013
Thrust Bearing
displacement
measurements
Compressor
Mantova CCPP – 2013
Inside GT temperature
measurements (compressor &
turbine)
CONCLUSION
• Flexibility Issue is not a Transient
• Fast Implementing Solution to support CCPP to cope with
Flexibility Requirements
• Innovation Project to insure materials and solutions for future
upgrading capable to deal with both higher performance and
more flexible operation
Back-up
Ansaldo Energia Proprietary & Confidential Information
TRENDS OF ITALIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET
RENEWABLES GROWTH
Produzione lorda (GWh)
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
Eolica
8000
Solare
6000
2008-2012 (yearly variation):
• +9 TWh wind energy production
• +18.6 TWh PV energy production
• -17.3 TWh gross energy consumption (-4.9%)
4000
2000
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
GSE - Impianti a fonti rinnovabili in Italia: Prima stima 2012 (28/02/2013)
16/06/2013: National Unique Price (PUN) = 0 €/MWh for 2 hours
GME – MGP daily report (16/06/2013)
FUTURE SCENARIO AND IMPACT ON COMBINED CYCLE
FUTURE SCENARIO
Europe, Horizon 2020:
-20% greenhouse gases emissions
+ efficiency
+ cogeneration
Strategia Energetica Nazionale: per un’energia più competitiva e sostenibile (March 2013)
Italy, 2020: Towards a Gas /
Renewables mix
+ stability & security from Gas
Example: California prediction for
2020
+ 13500 MW in 2 hours
California Independent System Operator (CalISO)

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