Offshore Wind-global progress - Thoughts of a Lapsed Physicist

Report
Electric Power 2012
Dr. Allan R. Hoffman/U.S. Department of Energy
16 May 2012
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Why offshore wind and how big is the resource?
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Statistics from one year ago
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Current statistics
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The USG offshore wind program
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Concluding remarks
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Offshore Wind (OSW) has the potential, when widely
deployed, to address two critical issues facing the nation
 the need for new electrical energy sources that are
▪ carbon-free
▪ renewable
▪ indigenous to the U.S.
 the need to stimulate the economy and create new jobs
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
OSW power plants can produce up to 50% more electricity
than onshore cousins due to higher and steadier wind speeds
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Proximity to major U.S. load centers with high average
electricity costs
 50% of Americans live within 50 miles of a coast

Other advantages over onshore locations
 allows deployment of larger wind turbines
 reduced visual impacts
 less turbulence
 lower noise constraints (allowing higher rotor speeds)
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
OSW is a large, broadly distributed, U.S. energy resource
 thirty U.S. states border an ocean or Great Lake
 NREL-estimated gross resource at 90m hub height out to 50 nm
▪ wind speeds > 7 m/s: ~3,000 GW
▪ wind speeds > 8 m/s: ~4,000 GW
▪ U.S. installed generating capacity: ~1,000 GW

The global OSW resource is abundant, with the U.S.
potential ranked second only to China’s

European Union countries have been first movers and
currently lead the world in installed offshore wind power
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
Installed OSW capacity (end of 2010):
 European Union:
▪ 2.9 GW in 45 wind farms and 9 countries
▪ 1,136 turbines
▪ foundations: 65% monopiles
▪ average wind farm size: 155 MW
▪ average water depth: 17.4 m
▪ Average distance to shore: 27 km
 China:
▪ first OSW wind farm connected to grid: 3 MW x 34 = 102 MW
▪ ten other individual OSW turbines in operation
▪ size range: 1.5-2 MW
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
Installed OSW capacity (end of 2011):
 European Union (overall):
▪ 3.8GW in 53 wind farms in 10 countries
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1,371 turbines
foundations: 75% monopiles; 21% gravity-based
two full scale grid-connected floating turbines (2-3MW)
average wind farm size: 200 MW
average water depth: 22.8 m
average distance to shore: 23.4 km
 this is a decrease from 2010
 average distance for wind farms under construction: 33.2 km
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 Rated by nameplate capacity:
▪ United Kingdom
▪ Walney (phases 1 & 2): 367 MW
▪ Thanet: 300 MW
▪ Linn & Inner Dowsing: 194 MW
▪ Robin Rigg: 180 MW
▪ Gunfleet Sands: 172 MW
• Ormonde: 150 MW
• Kentish Flats: 90 MW
• Barrow: 90 MW
• Burbo Bank: 90 MW
• Rhyl Flats: 90 MW
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Denmark
 Horns Rev II: 209 MW
 Rodsand II: 207 MW
 Nysted: 166 MW
Belgium
 Bligh Bank: 165 MW
Netherlands
 Princess Amalia: 120 MW
 Egmond on Zee: 108 MW
Sweden
 Lillgrund: 110 MW
Germany
 Alpha Ventus: 60 MW
 Baltic I: 48 MW
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 China:
 Donghai Bridge: 102 MW
 Longyuan Rudong Intertidal: 131.3 MW
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United Kingdom:
 London Array (Phase I): 630 MW
 Greater Gabbard: 504 MW
 Sheringham Shoal: 315 MW
 Lincs: 270 MW
 Teesside: 62 MW
Germany:
 Trianel Borkum West II: 400 MW
 BARD Offshore I: 400 MW
Denmark:
 Anholt: 400 MW
Belgium:
 Thortonbank Phase 2: 148 MW
China:
 Datang Laizhou III: 50 MW
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United Kingdom:
 Dogger Bank: 9,000 MW (13,000 MW potential)
 Norfolk Bank: 7,200 MW
 Irish Sea: 4,200 MW
 Hornsea: 4,000 MW
 Firth of Forth: 3,500 MW
 Bristol Channel: 1,500 MW
 Moray Firth: 1,300 MW
 Triton Knoll: 1,200 MW
Sweden:
 Blekinge Offshore: 2,500 MW
South Korea:
 Korea Offshore: 2,500 MW
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
“A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind
Energy Industry in the United States”
 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf
 announced jointly by DOE and DOI February 2011
 goals:
▪ 2020: 10 GW installed @ $0.10/kWh
▪ 2030: 54 GW installed @ $0.07/kWh
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Department of the Interior
 critical partner – has primary jurisdiction
over OSW projects in federal waters
 announced “Smart from the Start” initiative November 2010
• To facilitate project siting, leasing , construction off the Atlantic Coast
• http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/02/10/smart-start-building-clean-energy-future
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DOE actions in support of the Strategic Plan:
 February 2011: announced release of three solicitations (up
to $50.5 over five years):
• Technology Development (up to $25M over 5 years)
-support development of innovative wind turbine
design tools and hardware
▪ Removing Market Barriers (up to $18M over 3 years):
- support baseline studies and targeted environmental research to
characterize key industry sectors and factors limiting the
deployment of offshore wind.
▪ Next-Generation Drivetrain (up to $7.5M over 3 years):
- fund development and refinement of next-generation designs
for wind turbine drivetrains
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DOI actions in advance and support of the Strategic Plan:
 June 2010: Interior and 10 East Coast states form OSW Consortium
 to promote development of OCS wind resources along East Coast
 ME, NH, MA, RI, NY, NJ, DE, MD, VA, NC
 February 2011: identified four mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf
Wind Energy Areas as part of ‘Smart from the Start’:
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Delaware (122 square nautical miles)
Maryland (207 )
New Jersey (417)
Virginia (165)
 April 2012: released draft EIS for assessing OSW resource potential in
Mid- and South-Atlantic planning areas
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
New Funding Opportunity Announcement by DOE (1 March 2012):
 six-year $180M initiative that seeks applications for Research
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Addressing Market Barriers
reflects increased focus in Wind Power Program on OSW
Includes $20M in FY2012, to fund up to four OSW projects
designed to
▪ drive down cost of OSW farms
▪ reduce concerns about ease of permitting, offshore installations,
grid integration
▪ reassure financiers about value of investments
Letters of Intent were due March 30th
applications due May 31st
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
private sector initiative

offshore high-voltage direct-current transmission line off the mid-Atlantic
Coast, capable of serving up to 7,000 megawatts of power from OSW farms

December 2011: DOI completed internal
review of AWC’s Right-of-Way application,
prior to its release for public review
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Project, if deployed, would span 300 miles
of state and federal waters from NJ/NY to VA
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
A year ago I concluded a talk on OSW with following words:
- offshore wind is the most important emerging renewable energy
technology
- it can, and must, become an important part of the U.S. energy picture
and its future economic growth
- the U.S. is well behind the Europeans and China at this early stage of OSW
development and deployment
- nevertheless, given the U.S. resource base, our ability to innovate, and our
broad and excellent manufacturing base, we can eventually play a major
and even dominant role in OSW if we decide as a nation to do so.
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These conclusions are still valid today, with the following caveats:

One year later the decision has been made to put increasing focus in DOE’s future
Wind Power Program on OSW
 DOE has committed $180M over six years ($20M in FY2012) to getting OSW
equipment in the waters off of U.S. coasts
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Contact information:
E-mail:
[email protected]
Telephone: 202 /586-8302
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