IB Biology 3 Final Examx

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 The
Cell Theory
• All living things are made up of cells
• The cell is the basic unit of life
• Cells come from preexisting cells
Kilo-
Hecto-
Deci-
Centi-
Milli-
Micro-
h
BASE
UNIT
--
k
d
c
m
µ (mu)
103
102
--
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
1000
100
--
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000001
 This
technique has
been used for over
45 years. Since the
cells in bone marrow
are multipotent, they
have the ability to
differentiate into
different blood cells.
 People with leukemia
are given transplants
cmassengale
with healthycopyright
blood.
7
Donated organs are used
to replace those that are
dying or diseased.
However, the demand FAR
outweighs the supply.
 Stem cells offer the
possibility of a renewable
source for tissues and
organs.
 Possible areas include:
Alzheimer’s disease, spinal
cord injury, stroke,
burns, heart disease,
diabetes copyright cmassengale

8





Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma is a cancer of
the lymphatic system.
1. Blood is filtered for the
presence of peripheral stem
cells. Cells in the general
circulation that can still
differentiate into different types
of blood cell otherwise known as
stem cells.
2. Bone marrow can be removed
before treatment.
3. patient requires heavy does of
radiation and or chemotherapy.
This will destroy health blood
tissue as well as the diseased
tissue.
4. Health stem cells or marrow
cells can be transplanted back to
produce blood cells
Prokaryotes
Plants (Euk)
Animals (Euk)
Size
< 5 um
> 10 um
> 10 um
Uni/Multi
Uni
Multi
Multi
Nucleus
No
Yes
yes
DNA
One circular DNA Many Linear DNA Many Linear DNA
in the nucleoid
Complex
structures
No
Manychloroplasts, cell
wall, vacuole
Many –
centrioles,
lysosomes,
flagella, cilia
Ribosomes
Small (70 s)
Large (80 s)
Large (80s)
Cell Division
Binary Fission
Mitosis/meiosis
Mitosis/Meiosis
Cell Membrane
Yes
Yes
Yes
Cytoplasm
Yes
Yes
Yes
#7
Materials move across the
bilayer from a HIGH
concentration to a LOW
concentration.
Materials move through a
Transport Protein from a
HIGH concentration to a
LOW concentration.
Materials move through a
Transport Protein from a
LOW concentration to a
HIGH concentration.
(REQUIRES ENERGY)
 Aerobic
Cell Respiration
 Anaerobic
Cell Respiration
Tertiary
Consumers
Secondary
Consumers
Primary
Consumers
Producers
Owl
Mountain
Lion
Snake
Deer
Grass
Rabbit
Daisies
 Greenhouse
Gases are gases in the
atmosphere that absorb and trap
radiation and heat.
• H2O vapour
• CO2
• CH4
• NOx
• CFC
 CFCs
are chlorofluorocarbons
 These
are molecules used in:
• Refrigerators
• Air conditioners
• Fire extinguishers
• Propellants in aerosol sprays
 It
was believed that they diffused harmlessly
into the stratosphere where they were
broken down by sunlight.
 This is true, BUT…
 We now know that in the process of
breaking them down, a chlorine atom is
produced.
 Chlorine is very destructive to the ozone
layer.
 Chlorine reacts with ozone molecules and
breaks it apart into oxygen, which cannot
turn back into ozone.
 One chlorine atom can destroy 100,000
ozone molecules.
 Skin cancers
• Carcinomas (relatively minor)
• Melanomas (dangerous)
 Eye issues
• Cataracts (lens becomes less transparent)
• Growths
 Phytoplankton
– very sensitive to UV light
 Plants – lower crop yields
 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – low tolerance to
UV light
Sigmoid Population Growth



a) Exponential Phase of rapid
population growth rate due to
lack of limiting factors
b) Transition Phase of a
slowing yet still high growth
rate due to increasing limiting
factors
c) Plateau stage in which the
population remains stable
with time. There is no
increase, but rather has
reached the carrying capacity.
Definition
Example
Herbivory
The eating of plants
Caterpillars, plant pests,
rabbits, giraffes
Competition
When organisms try to get
the same resource at the
same time
Inter-specific: hyenas and
lions fighting over the
zebra
Intra-specific: male deer
fighting over a female
Mutualism
When organisms live
closely together and both
benefit
Flowers and insects;
cowbirds and cows
Predation
When one organism hunts,
kills and eats another
organism
Mountain lion eating
rabbits
Parasitism
When two organisms live
closely together; one
benefits and the other is
harmed
Mosquitos and humans;
tapeworms and humans;
flukes and sheep
 Biomagnification
Kudzu
Also known as the "mile-aminute vine" and "the vine
that ate the South," the Kudzu
vine is native to Japan, but
was first brought to the
United States in 1876 when it
was featured at the
Philadelphia Centennial
Exposition as a hardy, fastgrowing vine that could help
inhibit soil erosion. Since its
introduction, Kudzu has been
spreading across the U.S. at a
rate as fast as 150,000 acres
annually, due primarily to the
fact that its individual vines
can grow upwards of a foot
per day in the right
conditions,
The Black Rat
The black rat is most likely one of
the first invasive species to ever be
inadvertently distributed by
humans. The species hitched rides
en masse on European ships. Since
then, the black rat has thrived in just
about every region of the world,
and has adapted exceptionally well
to rural, urban, and suburban
environments alike. Unfortunately,
its success as a species, in
combination with the success of
numerous other species of rats, is
believed to have come at the
expense of dramatic population
declines and even extinction of
countless bird, reptile, and other
small vertebrate species the world
over.
The Cane Toad
Temp.
(degrees
C)
Rainfall
(cm)
Plants
Animals
Misc.
Tundra
-70 to 15
15-25
Mosses,
grasses,
small
shrubs
Caribou,
owls,
hares,
insects
Midnight
Sun; no
trees,
permafrost
Taiga
Slightly
warmer
35-40
Conifers,
moss
Moose,
bears,
wolves
The largest
on land
Deciduous
Forest
-30 to 30
75-150
Oaks,
maples,
flowers,
ferns
Deer,
birds,
snakes,
raccoons
Rich soil;
diverse life
Rain Forest
Constant –
near 25
200-225
Many,
many
Many,
many
Near
equator;
most
diversity
Temp.
(degrees
C)
Rainfall
(cm)
Plants
Animals
Grassland
-30 to 30
25 to 90
Wheat,
Buffalo,
corn, trees, deer, lion,
grass
elephant
Shrubland
Hot in the
summer;
cool in the
winter
20-100
Scrub oak,
sage,
yucca
Birds,
mice,
mountain
lion
Desert
-18 to 50
<25
Cacti,
creosote
Lizards,
scorpions
Misc.
Rich soil
The driest
and hottest

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