Description Characteristics: Extremely cold climate Low biotic diversity Simple vegetation structure Limitation of drainage Short season of growth and reproduction Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material Large population oscillations The average precipitation is about 18 inches per year. The majority of precipitation is snow. In the summer is when the most rain will fall, yet on occasion it will snow. The tundra does not contain traditional seasons, mainly just winter and summer. N 66° 53' 39.161" Permacrest grows in the tundra. It is able to survive because of its thick, deep roots. It has long, tall stems..Its leaves are purple and yellow. Its roots are covered by two layers, permafrost and hard soil. Yodaberg is a plant that grows in the tundra. It has rubber like stems to keep its structure. The red color in the very middle of the plant helps to attract more sunlight, to help it grow. It grows closer to the ground so it is able to avoid harsh winds. Gripbear is another plant that grows in the tundra, it grows dark berries to attract sunlight. The berries are firmly attached to the plant to keep from blowing off. The roots spread out far underground so they are able to find water. The Calliergonn Giganteum adapted well to the tundra because it can grow underwater which protects it from cold, dry winds. When it is not growing, it stores nutrients from photosynthesizing. Labrador Tea also grows in the tundra. It has adapted well, because only bugs will feed off of it, no animals, as it is known to be slightly poisonous. 1. Caribou-The caribou migrate in the seasons search of food. In the winter they live in forests on the edge of the Arctic. In spring thousands head for the tundra where the calves are born. 2. Snow Goose- They feed on the roots and leaves of grasses, sedges, willows and other plants. During the Arctic summer when there are many hours of daylight, they are constantly eating. 3. Musk Ox-A musk oxen's coat keeps it snug and warm. For winter they grow thick undercoats of soft brown fleece, and thick overcoats of shaggy, long straight hair that hangs down to the ground. In May they shed large amounts of fur. 4. Snowy Owl-They have thick layers with feathers on top. They have strong feet and curved claws that help them hold on to prey. They are well camouflaged in winter 5. Artic Hare-The claws on the front feet of the Arctic hare are long. The strong claws are used for digging in hard-packed snow. The Arctic hare's coat grows longer and thicker for the winter. They have a short thick undercoat protected by a longer top coat. The white fur makes the hare difficult to spot in the snow. It has small ears which lose less body heat than larger ears. To keep warm and conserve energy, a hare will tuck in its tail, paws and ears and sit still for hours. 6. Artic Lemming-When there are too many lemmings in one area and not enough to eat, they migrate to find food. Many drown by running into the rivers and lakes. Lemmings eat plants, roots, berries and lichens. They gather seeds to eat in the wintertime. Polar Bears ~Feed off ringed seals ~Eat whale, walrus and bird eggs. ~Eat, on average 100 pounds per meal Timber Wolf ~Feed on moose, caribou, bison and mountain sheep. ~Breed from late March and April ~Live in packs, an alpha male & female leading the pack Arctic Foxes ~They eat Arctic ground squirrels, hares, ringed seal pups, & dead beluga whales. ~They also eat berries, and eggs, which classifies them to also be omnivores. Wolverines ~They normally hunt small animals such as rabbits and mice but also eat dead elk and deer. ~They sometimes eat berries and plants in the summer Grizzly Bear ~Top Carnivore of the tundra ~Eats a variety of plants and berries ~They move south in the winter to hibernate and give bearth Polar Bears Grizzly Bear Timberwolf Wolverines Arctic Fox Snowy Owl, Lemming, Caribou, Snow Goose, Musk Ox Calliergon Gigantium, Labrador Tea, Permacrest, Yodaberg, Gripbear The wolves are chasing the Caribou Benefits that come from a Tundra are the oil resources that are mined there. (zinc, aluminum and gold). Many animals also live in the Tundra, which makes it a beautiful place to visit. During the summer, the tundra will receive up to 24 hours of sunlight each day. Pingos are large rock forms that grow on top of little puddles and grow taller over time, they’re known to be one-of-akind shapes. Because there are no trees in the tundra, if you visit, you can see about 400 different varieties of reindeer mosses, sedges and many other types of flowers. • Oil spills can kill wildlife and significantly damage tundra ecosystems. • Buildings and roads put heat and pressure on the permafrost, causing it to melt.