Question #1 What is the analgesic of choice for mild to moderate knee pain due to osteoarthritis in a 78 year old female patient? A. Acetaminophen B. Aspirin C. Celocoxib D. Propoxyphene E. Tramadol Question #2 You are in the ED treating a 78 year old female patient with a history of breast cancer treated 7 years prior with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. She complains of severe, unrelenting pain in her low back without radicular symptoms or bowel or bladder dysfunction. The pain has been present for 3 months as a nagging ache, but, for the past 3 days, it has been unbearable. Her BP is 150/100, pulse 105, RR 18, Temp 98.8, pulse ox 96% on room air. What is the appropriate intravenous dose of morphine in mgs per kilogram of body weight to treat her pain? A. B. C. D. E. 0.01 mg/kg 0.05 mg/kg 0.10 mg/kg 1.00 mg/kg 2.50 mg/kg Question #3 Which of the following classifications best describes pain in the elderly resulting from inflammation, musculoskeletal, or ischemic disorders? A. Limbic system mediated B. Nocioceptive C. Neuropathic D. Parasympathetic mediated E. Sympathetic mediated Acute And Chronic Pain Management In The Elderly Henry R. Schuitema, D.O., FACOEP Medical Director Department of Emergency Medicine Kennedy Health Systems Stratford Campus Acute And Chronic Pain Management In The Elderly This Care of the Aging Medical Patient in the Emergency Room (CAMPER) presentation is offered by the Department of Emergency Medicine in coordination with the New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging. This lecture series is supported by an educational grant from the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation Aging and Quality of Life program. Learning Objectives • Perform a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of the elderly patient presenting to the ED with acute or chronic pain • Evaluate for untreated pain as the causative factor of agitation or delirium in older patients • Increase awareness of untreated pain and use of nonverbal cues in agitated elderly patients with impairments in hearing, speech and cognitive function • Identify both rapidly and accurately the patient’s goals of care and develop an appropriate, patient-centered plan of treatment for pain control Learning Objectives, Cont. • Discuss safety measures for the prevention of common ED iatrogenic pain complications from indwelling Foley catheters, central line placement, and endotracheal intubation • Prescribe and appropriately dose medications for the treatment of acute or chronic pain • Exercise caution when prescribing analgesic medications that increase morbidity in older patients • Manage opioid related side effects Case 1 • 79 year old woman presents with newly diagnosed recurrent metastatic breast cancer to bone and liver with underlying COPD. Her COPD has progressed over recent years leaving her oxygen and steroid dependent. • Her recent pathologic hip fracture results in daily pain and her dyspnea is difficult to control. • She is weakened by chronic anemia from PUD. • Constipation and anxiety are daily concerns. Aging In The United States • 1900 – 3.1 million elderly • 2000 – 35 million elderly • 2020 – 54 million elderly **Incidence of pain increases as we age What Is Pain • An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage • Pain is whatever the person experiencing it says it is • “Discomfort Management” Oligoanalgesia • The failure to recognize/treat pain • Risk factors – Advanced Age – Minorities • Failure to detect • Joint Commission – “5th Vital Sign” Reason For Oligoanalgesia • Lack of training • Inappropriate pain assessment • Reluctance to prescribe opioids Consequences Of Untreated Pain • • • • • Negatively impact on quality of life Depression and anxiety Social isolation Cognitive impairment Sleep disturbances Pain Management Provider Responsibilities • Pain relief is a moral and ethical professional responsibility • Providers must help patients make their own decisions and determine their own actions • Assessment focused on individual as a whole person and their response to pain Pain Assessment Tools • The Brief Pain Inventory – Measures severity of pain – Degree to which it interferes with life Pain Severity • Worst Pain • Least Pain • Average Pain • Pain Now Interference • Relations with others • Enjoyment of life • Mood • Sleep • Walking • General Activity • Working Pain Assessment • The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire – Descriptor of pain graded on a scale 0,1,2,3 – Present Pain Intensity on scale 0-5 Pain Assessment • • • • Assessment in the ED must be rapid Report of pain intensity and other descriptors Past pain history and medication history Ongoing monitoring of pain intensity, duration, response • Comprehensive assessment should be delayed Obstacles To Pain Assessment • Older patients fail to report pain (they view it as part of aging, don’t want more testing and medications) • Accept as punishment for past actions • Frequently deny pain – use terms like aching or sore • Communication and cognitive status Classification Of Pain • Nociceptive • Neuropathic • Combination Nociceptive Pain • Visceral or Somatic • Stimulation of pain receptors • Inflammation, musculoskeletal, ischemic disorders • Typically respond to both opioid and nonopioid therapy (and other non-pharmacologic treatment) Neuropathic Pain • Pathophysiologic disturbance of peripheral and central nervous system • Examples: Post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy • Respond better to anticonvulsants and antidepressants • Pain of mixed origins – combination therapy Management Of Acute Pain • Combination of opioid/non-opioid analgesics • Addition of adjunct medications • Non-pharmacologic interventions Pharmacologic Management Of Pain In Elderly • • • • Principal treatment modality for pain Significant adverse drug reactions Drug/drug and drug/disease interactions Typically requires trials of various agents Pharmacologic Management General Principles • • • • • Non-opioid mild pain Opioids for severe pain Select the agent that targets the issue Neuropathic – anticonvulsants Start Low and GO Slow Non-Opioid Analgesics • Mild to moderate musculoskeletal pain • Acetaminophen – – – – no effect platelet aggregation no anti-inflammatory properties well tolerated if no renal/hepatic failure do not exceed 2 gm/day Non-Opioid Analgesia • NSAIDS • Significant Risk in Elderly – GI Bleeding – Platelet dysfunction – Impaired coagulation • Prolonged use in elderly should be avoided Opioid Analgesia Cornerstone of acute pain management – – – – – – Proper drug selection Route of administration Initial dose Frequency of administration Adjunct agent Side effects Opioid Potency • • • • Fentanyl Hydromorphone Morphine Oxycodone Route Of Administration • • • • • Intravenous preferred route Intramuscular should be avoided Inhaled very effective Oral mainstay in ambulatory ED setting Transdermal great outpatient Dose And Frequency • Start low and go slow!!! • Elderly at risk oligoanalgesia and pharmacocomplications • Many elderly opioid naïve Adjunct Agents/Side Effects • • • • • Anticipate, prevent, manage Nausea and itching Over-sedation Prophylactic bowel regimens Avoid chewing/crushing sustained release products Specific Painful Conditions • • • • • Head Injuries Migraines Chest Pain Abdominal Pain Fracture/Dislocations Painful Procedures • • • • Foley Catheters Central Venous Access Endotracheal Intubation Cardioversion Chronic Pain • Painful condition lasting longer than 3 months • 4 types – – – – Pain persisting beyond normal healing time Pain relating to chronic degenerative disease Cancer related pain Pain without identifiable cause Chronic Pain Goals Of Therapy • Pain reduction • Return to functional status Epidemiology Of Chronic Pain • 1/3 of population affected • Caused by chronic pathologic process to organ system • Caused by prolonged dysfunction of peripheral/central nervous system • Frequently psychiatric issues in play Psychological Characteristics Of Chronic Pain Patients • Misuse of narcotics • Tendency to “Doctor shop” • Bodily impairment related to physical/emotional factors • Inability to work • Feeling of helplessness • Over-dramatization • Despair and negative attitudes Objective Findings Of Chronic Pain • Muscle atrophy • Skin temperature changes • Trigger points Chronic Pain And Treatment • Management is controversial • Opioids should only be used if they enhance function • Single practitioner should be sole prescriber • Narcotics are effective and recommended for cancer pain • NSAIDS helpful but problematic in elderly Chronic Pain And Anti-Depressants • Very effective • Lower doses needed compared to depression • TCA enhance endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms • Used in conjunction with private physician Chronic Pain And Anticonvulsants • • • • Effective Neuropathic Pain Prevent burst of action potentials Helps lancinating pain Carbamazepine, valproic acid frequently used Chronic Pain • Muscle relaxants • Anxiolytics • Tramadol Special Pain Presentations Post Herpetic Neuralgia • • • • Follow acute course herpes zoster Characterized by shooting, lancinating pain Frequently have hyperesthesia Narcotics, antidepressants Special Pain Presentations Fibromyalgia • • • • 11 of 18 specific tender points Muscle stiffness, generalized aching pain Sleeplessness Narcotics, short course NSAIDS, antidepressants, exercise Special Pain Presentation Neurogenic Back Pain • Very common with advanced age • Frequently associated with neuropathy • Narcotics, tapered steroids, muscle relaxants Treating Cancer Pain • • • • Pain is cancer's most disturbing symptom Aggressive pain management can relieve >90% Pain management remains poor Long acting narcotics scheduled with bursts for breakthrough pain Drug Seeking Behavior in Elderly • • • • Not well studied Prescription drug abuse increasing It knows no boundaries Substance abuse by “family members” Most Common Abuse Presentations • • • • Back Pain Headache Extremity Pain Dental Pain Case 1 • 79 year old woman presents with newly diagnosed recurrent metastatic breast cancer to bone and liver with underlying COPD. 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