GE Aviation-Dr. Dale Carlson ()

Report
GE Aviation:
Perspectives on
Clean, Efficient
Engines
Dr. Dale Carlson
May 14, 2013
“I find out what the world needs,
then I proceed to invent it.”
– Thomas Edison
2
2
GE Aviation
GE Aviation
Technical innovation …
Key to our past and future
First
U.S. jet engine
U.S. turboprop engine
Mach 2 engine
High bypass engine
Variable cycle turbofan engine
Unducted fan engine
Composite fan blade in airline service
120,000+ lb thrust engine
4D trajectory flight in revenue service
Modular power tile
FMS-controlled Unmanned Aircraft System
3
GE Aviation
50 years of engine improvements
Flight Safety
Thrust to Weight
25
8
20
6
15
4
10
5
90%
improvement
0
1940
0.9
1960
350%
increase
2
0
1980
2000
Fuel Efficiency
1940
130
0.8
120
0.7
110
0.6
100
0.5
0.4
1940
45%
improvement
1960
90
1980
2000
80
1940
1960
1980
2000
Engine Noise
35 db
decrease
1960
1980
2000
4
GE Aviation
Commercial engines…by thrust rating
New Technology In
Each Power Class
130
100
Did you know? CFM56 Fleet of
22,000 Engines Accumulates 1
Million Hours Every 8.5 Days!
GE90-115B
GE90-90B
GP7282
GE90-85B
CF6-80C (FADEC)
CF6-80C (PMC)
GP7277
GP7270
GE90-76
70
GE9X
GENX
CF6-80E1A3
CF6-80E1A4
CF6-80E1A2
CF6-80C2
CF6-50
40
R88DT HPT
CF6-80A
CF6-6
CFM56-5C
CFM56-5A
CFM56-3
TF39
CFM56-2
10+
1970
CF34-3A
TF34
1980
CFE738
1990
CFM56-7B
CFM56-5B
CF34-8C
CF34-3B
LEAP
CF34-10
2000
HF120
Passport
2010
World’s Broadest, Most Modern Product Line
CFM, CFM56, LEAP and the CFM logo are trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE
EA (GP line) is a 50/50 JV between GE and Pratt & Whitney
5
GE Aviation
The Future:
Global forces/environment
6
GE Aviation
Industry drivers
Oil & crack spread
Energy Information Agency (EIA)
WTI 5.1% YoY … Avg August crack spread $36
WTI $/bbl
WTI oil $/bbl
Refining costs $/bbl (“crack”)
EU assurances to support banks & rising tensions with
Iran have both pushed oil prices to 3 month high
2009
2010
2012
2011
Global semi-conductor billings
U.S Non-defense capital goods orders
SIA, 3 month moving average (Per MM)
U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics (Orders, seasonally adjusted, $B)
Down 3.4% YoY
Historical Peak
Semi-conductors are high value,
low volume commodity …
significant for freight demand
2009
2010
2011
2012
Orders signify capital investments &
indicator for purchasing … June
showed decline continuing
2009
2010
2011
2012
7
GE Aviation
Commercial aviation growing steadily
Airframe
Traffic growth (Trillion RPKs)
Production rate
(’12  ’14)
A380
2.7  3.5
GP
777
7  8.3
GE90
787
3.5  10
GEnx
737
38  42
CFM
A320
40  42
CFM
EJet
8.7  9.2
CF34
CRJ
2.5  2.5
CF34
9.3%
5.4%
CAGR
CAGR
‘10
’14F
’20F
Highest production ramp rates in 3 decades … inconsistent with demand growth
Boeing and Airbus are increasing rates to ~40 / month. That means: 40 x 2 (Airbus & Boeing) x 11.5 mth. / yr. = 920 / yr. or ~1,000 including the
other new single aisles.1,000 x 5 years = 5,000 / 10 yrs. = 10,000 / 20 yrs. = 20,000 aircraft.
CFM, CFM56, LEAP and the CFM logo are trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE
EA is a 50/50 JV between GE and Pratt & Whitney
8
GE Aviation
Technology success takes commitment
and opportunity
Commitment …
$1-2 billion continuous technology investment per year
GE90
core tests
GP7
core test
1995
2000
GEnx
core tests
2005
LEAP
eCore tests
2010
CF34-10E
GE90
CFM56-5B
CF34-8C
CFM56-7B
Opportunity …
GE90-94B
GEnx-1B
GE90-115B
GP7200
GEnx-2B
10 new engines proving and maturing technology
CFM i CFM, CFM56, LEAP and the CFM logo are trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE s a 50/50 JV between GE and Snecma
EA is a 50/50 JV between GE and Pratt & Whitney
9
GE Aviation
Our Industry-Specifically Propulsion
• Timescales of innovation long…safety demands technologies
to be proven…strategic vision/commitment a must (Gamma
TiAl, CMC, etc.)…multi-decade VISION
• Almost every flying technology started as a USG funded
(NASA, DoD, etc.) early TRL level study, many driven to TRL 5
or 6. Changing dynamics/players…WTO agreement,
sequestration, emerging funding sources
• Doubling of revenue miles every 13-15 years despite “shocks”
such as 911
• Question: How many “tube/wing” iterations are left?
 15% campaign/campaign FB improvement a must
 ICAO 2050 CO2 commitment, other regs looming
10
GE Aviation
Technology Readiness to Serve
Today and Tomorrow
11
GE Aviation
GE Aviation Engineering
UK
665 engineers
463 engineers
United States
Turkey
5529 engineers
126 engineers
Mexico
929 engineers
Poland
India
China
142 engineers
644 engineers
Over 8000 engineers around the globe
3000 technologists at 5 Global Research Sites
12
GE Aviation
Practical innovation … GE’s model
Global resources teamed to advance technology
Idea creation
• Internal
+
Technology maturation
• Cross-disciplinary teams
• Customers
• Technology roadmaps
• Government
• TRL/MRL maturation plans
• Universities
• Long-term growth
strategies
(300+ relationships)
• Tactical funding
=
Winning products
• 30+ new technologies by 2020
13
GE Aviation
2020-2050?
Today
The Physics of “Readiness to Serve”
• Highly Loaded
Compressors
• Low Loss
Inlets
• High OPR Low
Emissions
Combustors
• Variable Low
Loss Exhausts
• Adaptive cycles
• Constant Volume
Combustion
• Distributed
Power
• Hybrid Electric
Transmission
Propulsion
• Very High BPR
Turbofans
• Novel Alloys /
MMC’s
• Non-metallics
• Ultra High BPR
Turbofans
• Open Rotors
• Advanced Engine
Architectures
• Distributed
Propulsion
• Wake Ingestion
14
GE Aviation
Essential technologies … keeping the
pipeline filled
Technology
Composites
2010
Advanced
turbofan
Lean
combustion
Advanced cooling
Integrated
engine and
aircraft
systems
High-temp
materials
Flight Management
Adaptive
cycles
Advanced
architectures
2020
Architecture
Integrated propulsion
Integrated power
generation
Core efficiency
New designs
15
GE Aviation
Technology demonstrator programs
AETD
FATE
HEETE
10s
00s
OPEN ROTOR
ADVENT
90s
80s
AATE
70s
TECH56
UDF
E3
QCSEE
Renewing our technology DNA for
new products and upgrades of
fielded products
GE Proprietary Information
Subject to restrictions on the cover or first page
16
GE Aviation
Advanced materials
17
GE Aviation
Carbon fiber fan blades have proven
durability
GE90 field experience …
No Airworthiness Directives (AD’s)
or special inspections
No flight line lubrication
Incredibly durable …
… almost maintenance free
180+ bird ingestion events with
only 1 blade not serviceable
SOURCE: GE90 in service record
16
30
+
YEARS
in service
+
MILLION
flight hours
18
GE Aviation
Ceramic Matrix Composites … future
of performance
Enhancement
• Stg1 Shroud CMC
• CMC HPT stage 2 airfoils
• Further CMC incorporation
Engine fuel efficiency
EIS configuration
No
cooling
air losses
1/3
the weight
1st
Higher
commercial
application
2016
thermal
capability
Future
EIS performance
19
GE Aviation
GE ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs)
development
1
st
G E N E R AT I O N
2
nd
G E N E R AT I O N
3
rd
G E N E R AT I O N
2000s
2016
2020
Power Generation
turbine shroud
Aviation LEAP HPT shroud
Aviation and Power Gen hot
section airfoils and combustor
• 15,000+ service hours
• 1st FAA certification
• 10M+ service hours by ‘20
Game changing material technology … reduced Fuel Burn through lower
cooling flow and weight
CMC service introductions built on 20+ years of development
20
GE Aviation
Gamma TiAl turbine blades
World’s first certified intermetallic application
10s
TiAl turbine blade
Complete Material Database
05s
Engine Testing of TiAl Components
00s
Component Casting Trials
90s
Alloy Development
80s
TiAl LPTB weight reduction vs.
Ni superalloys … 100 lb./stage
21
GE Aviation
Manufacturing Development
Turbine airfoils
Rotating parts
Manufacturing support
Automation
Dayton
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Canada
PMC/Ox-Ox composites
Structures
Additive manufacturing
CMC composites
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Newark
Technology readiness  research to production
Manufacturing readiness  industrialization
22
GE Aviation
Aerodynamics
23
GE Aviation
Evolution of fan technology
1992 - CF6-80E
Titanium blades
Today
Compound swept aero
Metal casing
Composite blades
34 airfoils
Composite casing
Shrouded
18 airfoils
Radial aero
Unshrouded
High eff / high flow
Significant fuel burn reduction
24
GE Aviation
eCore technology…delivers thermal
efficiency and retention
Performance efficiency
Double wall, 360º aft case
• Next generation 3D Aero
• 22:1 PR in 10 stages … best in industry
Performance retention
• Short, stiff core retains performance
• Rigid aft case maintains clearances
• Blisks minimize dovetail leakage
Operability
• Stall-free performance
Stage 1-5 blisks
25
GE Aviation
Compressor aerodynamics for LEAP
Efficiency, performance retention,
maintenance costs
3rd generation 3-D aerodynamic design
• Advanced sweep
• End wall contouring… tip and root
• Balanced stage loading
Bowed stators
Integral bladed disks
CFM, CFM56, LEAP and the CFM logo are trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE
26
GE Aviation
Advanced turbine cooling & efficiency
HPT S1B Hgas
LE
Film Effectiveness
All Streamlines
Htc
Hrel
PS
SS
xs
Cooling Flows
HPT S1B Ttb
Purge,
Leakage Flows
27
GE Aviation
Combustion
28
GE Aviation
Lean-burn combustion …
over 25 million hours of experience
Cruise NOx improvement versus typical rich-quench-lean combustor
(NOx emission per lb of fuel*)
Continued emissions
reductions while meeting
the increased turbofan
cycle demands
% RQL NOx emissions
100
75
Dual Annular
(CFM)
• 10M+ flight
hours
50
25
0
Dry Low
Emissions
(Aeroderivative)
• 15M+ industrial
hours
1994
• 2-nozzle lean
burn mode
Twin Annular Premixing Swirler
(TAPS)
• Compact
staging
Next-gen TAPS
• LEAP engine
• Certified on
GEnx
1998
*On ground, 1000F combustor inlet temperature
Comparison with DLE made assuming equivalent operating pressures and liquid fuel
2011
2016
Potential TAPS
evolution …
maintenance
cost reductions
2020+
CFM, CFM56, LEAP and the CFM logo are trademarks of CFM International, a 50/50 joint company between Snecma and GE.
29
GE Aviation
Lean combustion lowers NOx
Traditional Combustor
Temperature Rise
Curve
NOx production zone
(Fuel / Air Ratio)
Lean burning TAPS Combustor
.042
.030
Stoichiometric Temperature
.030
Temperature
.12 .07
Excess Fuel
Excess Air
Rich
Lean
(Fuel / Air Ratio)
30
GE Aviation
Lean-burn combustion … lowers HPT
distress & improves thermal efficiency
TAPS lean combustor
Typical rich burn
• Lean flame reduces local hot spots
combustor
• Improves turbine part life for better
TOW and HPT maintenance cost
• Reduced NOx, achieves CAEP/10
limits
Local
hot spots
TAPS lean burn
combustor
*Twin Annular Pre-mixing Swirler
31
GE Aviation
Bringing it all together
32
GE Aviation
Technology readiness for EIS and growth
Continuous investment produces multiple technologies & innovations
Composites
Core efficiency
Combustor
Lighter, durable blades
& case
3rd generation 3D aero
Low temp. profile
and lean burning
… maintenance free fan
& debris rejection
High Press. Ratio HPCs
… durable combustor
CMC’s / TiAl /
Cooling / Coatings
Better efficiency
with same metal temp.
… durable HPT & LPT
33
GE Aviation
GEnx
Integrating new technologies throughout the engine
COMPOSITE CASE & FAN
BLADES
1000 lbs./ aircraft
CONTROLS
LPT
Model based
TiAl spin casting
Distributed
High temp packaging
HPT
15% reduction in cooling flow
Next gen disk materials
Entry Into Service
in 2011
787
COMBUSTOR
50% NOx margin
TAPS
FAN BLADE AERO & ACOUSTICS
Improved SFC
Adv. noise prediction
COMPRESSOR
Performance retention
Adv. aero and stability modeling
747-8
34
GE Aviation
LEAP
The next generation of technology
Entry Into
Service ~2016
STRUCTURES
Rigid structures
3600 double
wall HPC case
HPT
Proven
materials
3D aero
Adv. Cooling
DIRECT-DRIVE
High bypass ratio
COMBUSTOR
Lean-burn
A320 NEO
COMAC C919
COMPRESSOR
Integral bladed disks
Advanced 3D aero
COMPOSITES
Fan blades & fan case
737 MAX
35
GE Aviation
The Future: Open rotor tests
GE/FAA/NASA testing
began in 2009
Test builds on 1985
demonstration
• Acoustics validation
• Aero model validation
• New blade concepts
• Installation effects
• Pitch change effects
• Pylon, sidewall interaction
36
GE Aviation
No Tube & Wing? BLI / Wake Propulsion
Reenergizing aircraft wake via distributed propulsion
Turbulent B.L. Flat Plate Cummulative Mass Ave P/P0 for 35K/0.8/ISA Condition
120
100
Y (in)
80
60
40
20
0
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Cummulative Mass Ave P/P0
Aircraft Installation and
integration Critical
> 10% Fuel Burn Savings Potential
37
GE Aviation
Hybrid Turbo/Electric Engine Concepts
NASA N+3 Boeing-GE SUGAR Volt
Hybrid Fuel/Battery Airplane
N+3 SUGAR GE hFan
Hybrid Turbo/Electric Engine
Multiple potential configurations
• Power transfer between shafts
• Back-up power, eliminate APU, EPU
• Aircraft systems synergy
• Electric idle / taxi operation
• Reduced energy costs
Superconducting Machines
38
GE Aviation
Superconducting Turbo-Electric Propulsion
Fuel Burn Reduction* (%)
30
20
10
0
Conventional
Turbo-Electric
Turbo-Electric
Turbo-Electric
Turbo-FC-Electric
Battery
Turbofan
Fan
Distributed
Distributed
Distributed
Turbo-Electric
(FPR~1.6)
(FPR~1.35)
Fan
Wake Fan
Wake Fan
Distributed
(FPR~1.25)
(FPR~1.25)
(FPR~1.25)
Wake Fan
(FPR=1.25)
* Relative to 2000 SOA TF
39
GE Aviation
GE’s commitment …
• Technology innovation
for customer value
• Learning from the world’s largest
installed fleet
• Focusing on people, processes,
and tools
• To be prepared for, and shape,
the future of flight

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