[Lecture 15] Cinema Novo for wiki 2012

Cinema Novo
Lecture 15
Snap shot of Brazilian Film Production
• 1978—most successful year ever; 61.8 million
spectators; 29.2% of the market; 100 films
• 1992—36,000 spectators; 3 films produced
• 2002—7.4 million spectators; 30 films
Early Cinema in Brazil
• First screening held in Rio de Janeiro in July
1896 (six months after Lumiere’s Paris
• 1900-1912: Bela Época
– Brazilian films dominated the internal market—
over 100 films per year
• Film in Brazil: always an elite/middle class
attraction (not popular with the working
Brazilian Avant-Garde
• Mário Peixoto’s Limite (1930)
– “The Brazilian Experimental film”
– Eisenstein referred to it as a “work of genius”
Humberto Mauro, pioneer of Brazilian film
• First film 1925
• Made Fiction films in 1920s and 1930s
• Made Documentaries for INCE (National
Institute of Educational Cinema) in 1936-1967
(357 documentary films)
• Most important precursor to Cinema Novo
• Ganga Bruta (1933)--masterpiece
Before Cinema Novo, 1930s-1950s:
Experiments in industrial film production (sound film)
– Cinédia Studios
• Chanchada genre (musical comedies)
– Alô, Alô, Carnaval (Adhemar Gonzaga, 1936)
» Carmen Miranda
– Atlântida Studio (Rio de Janeiro)—vertically
• Chanchada
– Vera Cruz Studio (São Paulo)—”Tropical
Hollywood”—modeled on MGM
• Established 1949, Bankrupt in 1954
• Produced O Cangaceiro (Lima Barreto, 1953)
– won highest award at the Cannes film festival
Carmen Miranda, chanchada star
Brazil, 1950s
• Developmental Nationalism
– President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961)
• Rapid industrialization:
– b/t 1955-1964—industrial production increased by 80%
– Develop national industry with the help of foreign capital and
loans from the IMF
• New Capital City: Brasilía
– Built by Oscar Niemeyer (architect) and Lucio Costa (townplanner)
– Building began in 1956; city inaugurated in 1960
Brasilía, Capital of Brazil
Original design of the Pilot Plan by Lucio Costa, 1957
Figure 1: Percentage of the population in urban areas, major regions 1950–2050
Source: United Nations Population Division, 2010
The next section of this paper begins with an overview of the historical trends in urban
growth in Brazil. This will be broken up into four periods, each covered by a specific
sub-section. The first sub-section looks at certain key settlement patterns under
Cinema Novo
• Three phases
– Phase 1: 1960-1964
– Phase 2: 1964-1968
– Phase 3: 1968-1972
• Directors: Glauber Rocha, Ruy Guerra, Carlos
Diegues, Nelson Pereira dos Santos
Cinema Novo, Phase 1: 1960-1964
• Mode of Production
– Independent and artisanal
i.e. total rejection of the Vera Cruz and chanchada models
Low budget (ex: $25,000 to make _Vidas Secas_)
Mode of representation
Outdoor, location shooting
Nonprofessional actors
Themes: Everyday life themes; Progressive, socially critical of
lack of institutions
Cinematography: overexposure; high contrast; handheld
camera work; mobile; long takes; no filters or bounce boards
Sound: ambient; no score
Editing: Continuity
Mise-en-scene: realist
Vidas Secas, opening sequence
(Nelson Pereira dos Santos, 1963)
Vidas Secas, ox cart (diegetic sound)
(Nelson Pereira dos Santos, 1963)
Vidas Secas, ending
(Nelson Pereira dos Santos, 1963)

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