Water-Based - Celplast Metallized Products

Report
BARRIER PACKAGING IN THE
REAL WORLD
Dante Ferrari
Celplast Metallized Products Limited
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
1
Outline
Background
Introduction
 Films
 Laminate structures
 Adhesive laminating conditions
Pre- and Post-Gelbo Flex Barrier Properties
 Laminated MET PE
 High Barrier MET PET
 Top-Coated MET PET
Bond Strength of Adhesive Laminations
Summary
Conclusions
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
2
Introduction
PE and PET are two of the most commonly used base
substrates in flexible packaging
Two most important characteristic of a flexible package
 Barrier properties
 Lamination bond strength
What happens to the package in the real world?
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
3
Introduction
This study was designed to evaluate the practical barrier of pouches
The intention was to simulate flexing and handling that would be
expected through the conversion and distribution chain
Barrier data was collected at various stages in order to estimate and
compare the potential degradation of initial barrier through practical
usage
 Gelbo-Flex testing was used to simulate handling
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
4
Introduction: Films
High barrier MET PE Sealant film
Properties
Typical Value Unit
Test conditions
Thickness
1.50
mil
OTR
0.06
cc/100in2/day
23ᵒ C, 50% RH
WVTR
0.07
g/100in2/day
38ᵒ C, 90% RH
Metal Adhesion
>300
g/in
MA-1
Previous studies1 have shown that in a 2-ply structure,
barrier properties are similar to a 3-ply structure using a
standard metallized PET film, using less material
1
“Sustainable Packaging: Reducing Material and Carbon Footprint with Metallized Barrier
Sealants”, Packaging Films, Sept. 2012.
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
5
Introduction: Films
Bi-axially oriented high barrier MET PET film
Properties
Typical Value
Unit
Thickness
0.48
mil
OTR
0.015
cc/100in2/day
23ᵒ C, 50% RH
WVTR
0.015
g/100in2/day
38ᵒ C, 90% RH
Metal Adhesion
400
g/in
MA-1
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
Test conditions
6
Introduction: Films
Bi-axially oriented inline top-coated MET PET
Properties
Typical Value
Unit
Test conditions
Thickness
0.50
mil
OTR
0.003
cc/100in2/day
23ᵒ C, 50% RH
WVTR
0.002
g/100in2/day
38ᵒ C, 90% RH
Metal Adhesion
>300
g/in
MA-1
• Produced using proprietary in-vacuum EB top-coating
process, which traps metal and improves barrier2
2
“Improve Barrier Properties and Significantly Reduce Your Carbon Footprint with In-line
Metallizing and Top-coating”, AIMCAL Fall Technical Conference, 2011.
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
7
Laminate Structures
3 laminate structures were prepared:
SAMPLE 1
SAMPLE 2
MET PE: 2 ply Laminated Structure
MET PET: 3 ply Laminated structure
Layer Description
Layer
Thickness
Layer Description
Layer
Thickness
Clear PET
0.48 mil
Clear PET
0.48 mil
Adhesive Lamination
MET PE Sealant Web
Adhesive Lamination
1.5 mil
HB MET PET
0.48 mil
Adhesive Lamination
PE Sealant Web
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
1.5 mil
8
Laminate Structures
SAMPLE 3
Coated MET PET: 3 ply Laminated structure
Layer Description
Clear PET
Layer
Thickness
0.48 mil
Adhesive Lamination
HB Top-Coated MET PET
0.50 mil
Adhesive Lamination
PE Sealant Web
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
1.5 mil
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
9
Lamination Conditions
Solvent-less
 Two part polyester/polyether urethane




Standard 4-roll metering
Adhesive at 113 °F (45 °C), nip at 113 °F (45 °C)
Applied weight 1.1 – 1.25 lb./ream (1.8 to 2.0 GSM)
Corona Treater for primary and secondary set to 0.2 WD
Water-Based





Two part acrylic urethane
Standard gravure application
Applied weight 1.5 to 1.7 lb./ream (2.5 to 2.8 GSM)
Corona Treater for primary and secondary set to 0.2 WD
Two zone dryer set to 170 and 180 °F (77 and 82 °C); nip at 180 °F (82 °C)
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
10
Lamination Conditions
Solvent-Based





Two part curing polyester urethane
Standard gravure application
Applied weight 1.6 to 1.7 lb./ream (2.6 to 2.8 GSM)
Corona Treater for primary and secondary set to 0.2 WD
Two zone dryer set to 170 and 180 °F (77 and 82 °C); nip at 180 °F (82 °C)
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
11
Bond Strength
of
Laminate Structures
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
12
Bond Strength
All results below shown after 7 days, similar to 24 hour results
Solventless and solvent-based provided best bonds
Water-based gave high bonds, adhesive transfer to PE
Bond strength units of measurement are all g/in
ADHESIVE
PRODUCT
Clear PET/Met PE
Bond,
Hi/Lo
Solvent-based 551/457
Mode of
failure
30 –50 %
Metal Transfer
Clear PET/Met
PET/PE
Bond,
Mode of
H/L
failure
1454/488 PE stretch
Solventless
675/539
90 % Metal
Transfer
> 1482
Water- Based
300/293
Adhesive
transfer
549/505
Could Not
Separate,
PE tear
Adhesive
transfer
Clear PET/Coated
Met PET/PE
Bond,
Mode of
H/L
failure
1463/
Destruct
568
1669/
1038
PE tear
584/553
Adhesive
transfer
Note: Blue highlight is the interface tested for bond strength.
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
13
Barrier Properties
of
Laminate Structure
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
14
Barrier & Bond Testing
The laminations were measured for
OTR:
Initial, after 20 and 270 flexes
ASTM D3985
@ 23°C and 0% RH
WVTR:
Initial, after 20 and 270 flexes
ASTM F372
@ 38°C and 90% RH
Bond strength
Initial, 24 hours and 7 days
Instron Bond testing -10 in/min
separation
90 degree peel
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
15
Gelbo-Flex Testing
Automated or Manual operation
Flat material mounted as a tube on each end
Flex is both rotational (270 degrees) and compressive
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
16
2 Ply Clear PET/MET PE
Adhesive Lamination
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
17
PET/ MET PE : Oxygen Barrier
Solvent-based and solvent-less adhesive based laminate structures provided
better barrier than water-based adhesive
The change in OTR values for all 3 structures were minimal even after 20 and
270 flexes
The effect of Gelbo-flexing is less significant for solvent-based and water-based
lamination
OTR (cc/100 in2/day) at 0%
RH and 23ᵒC
5%
6.7%
0.15
6.3%
0.16
0.17
5.9%
0.17
0.2
0.21 0.21
0.18
Pre-Flex
0.15
After 20
Flexes
After 270
Flexes
Solvent Based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
13.3%
0%
Solventless
Water Based
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
18
PET/ MET PE : Water Vapor Barrier
Initial barrier properties indicate that solvent-based and solvent-less adhesive
systems produce a better laminated structure
After the first 20 flexes, the change in WVTR is higher for solvent-less laminate
22.7%
3.7%
WVTR (g/100 in2/day) at
90% RH and 38ᵒC
0.27 0.28
18.8%
23.1%
0.19
0.13
5.6%
0.18
0.16
0.22
Pre-Flex
0.19
After 20
Flexes
0.12
After 270
Flexes
Solvent Based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
50.0%
Solventless
Water Based
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
19
3 Ply Clear PET/MET PET/PE
Adhesive Lamination
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
20
PET/ MET PET /PE : Oxygen Barrier
All laminated structures showed similar Pre-flex barrier properties
After 20 flexes, the barrier of water-based laminated structure deteriorated
faster than solvent-based and solvent-less laminate structure
11%
OTR (cc/100 in2/day) at
0%RH and 23ᵒC
71%
450%
9%
366%
0.03
Solventless
Pre-Flex
After 20
Flexes
0.14
0.11 0.12
0.02
0.29
0.26
0.24
Solvent Based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
766%
0.03
After 270
Flexes
Water Based
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
21
PET/ MET PET /PE : Water Vapor Barrier
Excellent WVTR values with solvent-based adhesive lamination. No significant
change after 20 or 270 Gelbo-Flexes
Initial WVTR value for water-based was better than solvent-less. However, after
flexing the performance of solvent-less and water-based laminate was similar
WVTR (g/100 in2/day) at
90% RH and 38ᵒC
31.6%
26.7%
11.1%
221%
0.1
0.1
0.09
Pre-Flex
0.076
0.06
0%
0.002
0.003
Solvent Based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
0.028
50%
0.002
After 20
Flexes
Solventless
After 270
Flexes
Water Based
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
22
Solvent-based Laminations: Oxygen Barrier
After 20 flexes, the barrier of Met PE 2-ply laminated structure is close to
High Barrier Met PET 3-ply structure, likely would be better than Standard
Barrier Met PET 3-ply structure
0.3
OTR (cc/100 in2/day)
0.25
0.2
Met PE
0.15
HB Met PET
0.1
0.05
0
Pre-Flex
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
After 20 Flexes
After 270 Flexes
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
23
Solventless Laminations: Oxygen Barrier
After 20 flexes, the barrier of Met PE 2-ply laminated structure is nearly same
as High Barrier Met PET 3-ply structure, is even better at 270 flexes
0.3
OTR (cc/100 in2/day)
0.25
0.2
Met PE
0.15
HB Met PET
0.1
0.05
0
Pre-Flex
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
After 20 Flexes
After 270 Flexes
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
24
Water-Based Laminations: Oxygen Barrier
After 20 flexes, the barrier of Met PE 2-ply laminated structure is better than
High Barrier Met PET 3-ply structure
2-ply barrier after 20 flexes would be significantly better than Standard
Barrier Met PET 3-ply structure
OTR (cc/100 in2/day)
0.3
0.25
0.2
Met PE
0.15
HB Met PET
0.1
0.05
0
Pre-Flex
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
After 20 Flexes
After 270 Flexes
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
25
3 Ply Clear PET/Coated MET
PET/PE
Adhesive Lamination
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
26
PET/ Coated MET PET /PE : Oxygen Barrier
Coated Met PET retains OTR properties better than HB Met PET in
equivalent 3-ply structure, both before and after Gelbo flexing
0.3
OTR (cc/100 in2/day)
0.25
0.2
0.15
HB Met PET
Coated Met PET
0.1
0.05
0
Pre-Flex
20 Flex
270 Flex Pre-Flex
Solvent-based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
20 Flex
270 Flex Pre-Flex
Solventless
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
20 Flex
270 Flex
Water-based
27
PET/ Coated MET PET /PE : Water Vapor
Barrier
For solvent-based laminations, both met PET films perform very well
For solventless and water-based laminations, Coated Met PET retains WVTR
properties much better than HB Met PET in equivalent 3-ply structure
0.12
WVTR (g/100 in2/day)
0.1
0.08
0.06
HB Met PET
Coated Met PET
0.04
0.02
0
Pre-Flex
20 Flex
270 Flex Pre-Flex
Solvent-based
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
20 Flex
270 Flex Pre-Flex
Solventless
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
20 Flex
270 Flex
Water-based
28
Conclusions
Bond strengths were higher with solvent-based and solventless
laminations for all three structures being studied, water-based bonds still
acceptable for most applications
The effect of Gelbo-Flexing on barrier properties was more significant for
MET PET compared to MET PE
For solventless and water-based adhesive systems, 2-ply lamination with
Met PE holds oxygen barrier better than 3-ply lamination with High
Barrier Met PET
3-ply structures with Coated Met PET retain their oxygen barrier better
(~ 2x) than the same structure using High Barrier Met PET, and retain
their water vapour barrier much better (~ 3x)
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
29
Special Thanks
A special thank you to Larry Jopko and the entire team at the Dow
Chemical Adhesive Research Centre in Buffalo Grove, IL for preparing
the laminations using Dow adhesives and carrying out the Gelbo Flex
testing, bond strength testing and barrier measurements.
Presented by
Dante Ferrari
AIMCAL Fall Conference
October 27 – 30, 2013
30

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