Day 1 Forces & Motion

Report
SIG SUMMER SCIENCE
INSTITUTE
FACILITATORS: JOSHUA MERICLE
GEOFFREY PAYTON
INTRODUCTIONS
• Name
• Where do you teach?
• Share one thing you hope to get out of our Summer
Institute
AGENDA: DAY 1
FORCES AND MOTIONS UNIT
1)What is our goal?
2) How does this work fit into Teaching and Learning Framework and EL
Master Plan?
3)How do the current standards and common core fit into the NGSS?
3) How did we approached the challenge?
4) Overview of NGSS Forces and Motion Standards
5) Overview of the Forces and Motion Unit
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Performance Expectation (PE) addressed
Common Core standards addressed
Culminating activity which addresses the PE
Lesson Flow overview of the Forces and Motion unit
Individual lesson activities (using T4T materials) that lead to culminating task
6) Share out of strategies to use with lessons and reflect on integrating
lessons into curriculum
OUR GOAL
• Currently, we are in a very exciting time in LAUSD in
which a lot of new things are being rolled out
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Next Generation Science Standards
Common Core Standards
Teaching and Learning Framework
EL Master Plan
• The Challenge
• To create a curriculum that starts the transition to and
implementation of these new programs
• Still implement the current science standards
Next Gen Sci.
Standards
EL Master
Plan
Teaching
and Learning
Framework
Common
Core
Standards
Current
Standards
MORE REALISTIC MODEL
Teaching
and
Learning
Framework
Current
Standards
Next Generation Sci.
Standards
Common
Core
EL Master
Plan
CONNECTION TO TEACHING AND
LEARNING FRAMEWORK AND ENGLISH
LEARNER’S MASTER PLAN
• Please think about connection to the EL Master Plan
and the Teaching and Learning Framework
throughout the lessons. ( Refer to Handout)
• At the end of the day we will be reflecting on where
and how the TLF and EL Master Plan is (or can be)
evident in the lesson plans.
THE CURRENT STANDARDS AND
COMMON CORE
• Connection between the current standards and the
NGSS
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The standards run parallel to one another
Forces and motion
Chemistry
Astronomy
The lessons we’ve picked to start implementing are aligned
with the current standards
• Connection to the Common Core Standards
• Built in to all of the NGSS are elements of the Common Core
Standards
INTERPRETING THE NGSS
• Please refer to the NGSS website
• http://www.nextgenscience.org
• Locate the Middle School Performance
Expectations
• Take out the T-Chart (Last page of the LP matrix)
NEXTGENSCIENCE.ORG
INTERPRETING THE
NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS
• In groups, discuss “Which Performance Expectations
(PE) fit into our current Forces and Motion
curriculum and which do not fit?”
• When looking at each PE please consider:
• Is the PE based on new content (disciplinary core ideas) to be
taught?
• Does the PE ask students to do something new with the content
or are you already doing it? If so, how?
• What current 8th grade Physical Science Physics content, if any,
is not included in the NGSS Performance Expectations?
IDENTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE
EXPECTATIONS
• Share out of PE’s that coincide with the current
Forces and Motion standards
• What category do the PE’s fall into?
• Is the PE based on new content (disciplinary core ideas) to
be taught?
• Does the PE ask students to do something new with the
content or are you already doing it? If so, how?
• What current standards , if any, are not included in the
NGSS Performance Expectations?
IDENTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE
EXPECTATIONS
• NGSS for Forces and Motion fall into two topics
• MS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
• MS-PS3 Energy
MS-PS2 MOTION AND STABILITY:
FORCES AND INTERACTIONS
PE GUIDES THE FORMATION OF THE
CULMINATING ACTIVITY
• Based on that Performance Expectation and our
current standards we designed the Culminating
Activity:
• Students will design/construct a car that is able to complete
the designed track(or course)that includes one large hill
and a subsequent smaller hill to evaluate the effectiveness
of their car (including speed, forces acting on the car, etc.)
• Refer to graphic organizer on developing NGSS aligned
lesson
REFER TO THIS HANDOUT
THE PROCESS:
HOW WE APPROACHED THE NGSS?
1) Identify a PE that our fits into our current 8th grade
curriculum. Look at engineering practices and crosscutting concepts that are addressed.
2) Develop a culminating task that aligns to the PE
chosen incorporating T4T materials.
3) Identify the CA Standards and Disciplinary Core Ideas
that link to the PE.
4) Develop a sequence of lessons that will teach the
content needed for students to be successful with the
PE (culminating task).
5) Identify any other PE(s) that can be addressed within
the sequence of lessons, develop activities (using T4T
materials) within unit that lead to culminating task.
OVERVIEW OF FORCES AND MOTION
UNIT
Refer to LP matrix, as we briefly go over the
sequence of lessons, content addressed, and student
outcomes for each lesson.
We will then go over and perform the activities from
lessons which utilize T4T materials.
Zip-Line
Activity
*
How to measure
motion
Car Design
*
What causes
Motion
Free Body Diag.
Investigation
Speed
Varying Mass
of the Car
Calculating
speed
Impact of Mass
F=MA
Varying Force
F=MA
Gravity and
Cars
Uphill Climb
Car Course
*
Investigation:
Car Collisions
Kinetic
Energy
Potential
Energy
Newton’s
Third Law
Culminating
Task
*
LESSON WE’RE GOING TO PREVIEW
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Lesson 1 Zip-line Activity
Lesson 2 Car Design
Lesson 7 Uphill Climb
Lesson 9 Culminating Activity
**LESSON 1 ZIP-LINE ACTIVITY**
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Engagement
• Intro to forces and motion
• Intro to basic engineering principles
• Framing the lesson
• Students are working together at a large engineering firm
and have been approached by the city of Los Angeles to
build a mass transit vehicle from downtown LA to the local
beaches
LESSON 1 ZIP-LINE
T4T ACTIVITY
• Challenge1 - Working in pairs, use the following
materials to design a transportation device that is
able to transport a mass (4 Pen ends) 10 m in the
fastest possible time.
• Materials: Fishing line, Straw(small, medium, large) , Balloon,
tape, binder clip, 4 pen ends, stopwatch
• Challenge 2- using the same materials, try to get
your vehicle to travel the furthest possible distance
Challenger 3- try using a different type of balloons to
see how they impact speed and/ or distance
LESSON 1: ZIP-LINE
• Share out the discovered rules of building your
vehicle
LESSON 1 ZIP-LINE ACTIVITY
• Debrief on building the transportation device
• What did you notice about building your vehicle ?
• What made it more efficient/less efficient?
• What recommendations could you give your fellow
engineers?
• Make Final Revisions to your Vehicle
• Record the fastest time
LESSON 1 WRAP UP
• Students would compare their data to another
group that had a different size straw
• Was there a pattern?
• If so what was the pattern?
• Common Core Connections
• Post-it reflection
LESSON 2 CAR DESIGN
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Introduce students to basic building principles of
engineering
• Intro to Calculating/ graphing speed
• Balanced and Unbalanced forces
• Free-body diagrams
• Framing the lesson
• One alternative to the Zip-line is to utilize existing transit
infrastructure and to use a mass transit vehicle
• Instead of a zip-line we have been asked to create a road
vehicle that focuses on one of three categories
LESSON 2 CAR DESIGN
• Students design concept cars and/or blue prints for
their ideas
• Challenge:
• Working in pairs, students are given only the materials to
build a self propelled “stock” car and must be able to travel
a specific distance
• Boards(Small, medium, or large), binder clips, single balloon,
bottle caps, tape, hot glue, dowels, straws
• Students may build a vehicle that is oriented toward…
• Speed
• Safety
• Number of Passengers
LESSON 2 CAR DESIGN
• Students are introduced to the Engineering cycle
Design
Revise
Build
Test
LESSON 2
• Once students have started to build and begun to
test there vehicles, regroup to share out
observations and any revisions the groups have
made
• Share out the discovered rules of building the car
LESSON 2 FOLLOW UP DISCUSSION
• Teacher leads a discussion on how we can measure
the performance of their cars
• “What do we need to measure, how can we measure it,
how can we record and communicate our results?”
• “What was the cause of the motion, where did it come
from, how can we quantify and communicate that?”
LESSON 2 WRAP UP
• Review of worksheet
• Strategies used
• Post-it reflection
LESSON 3:
INVESTIGATION SPEED
• Purpose of Lesson
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Students will calculate/ graph average speed
Compare and contrast data
Intro to Kinetic Energy
How do you measure speed?
• What factors affect speed?
• Framing the Lesson
• Students will be using the Engineering cycle to revise their cars
and get them to perform at their optimum level
• The data is used to calculate average speed and then is
graphed
• One of the main goals of creating this transit system is for it to
be as fast as possible
LESSON 4:
INVESTIGATION: VARYING MASS
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Intro to mass and the impact it has on speed
• Students use graphs to extrapolate the relationship between
mass and speed
• Intro to F=MA
• Measuring the impact of one variable by measuring another
• How does adding mass impact acceleration?
• Framing the lesson
• Using the cars they have built students will add mass to their
vehicles and measure the speed, students try three different
masses
• In addition to being as fast as possible, the carrying capacity is
another factor students may build for
LESSON 5:
VARYING FORCE
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Further elaboration on F=MA
• As force is increased what should happen to the acceleration
• Students measure and graph speed to extrapolate the
relationship between force and acceleration
• How does adding more force impact acceleration?
• Framing the Lesson:
• One of the major reasons why we are creating a mass
transit system is to eliminate pollution, therefore we must find
the most efficient amount of force to apply to the vehicle
• Forces interact with each other, as a result balloons may
start to interfere with one another
LESSON 6:
DOWNHILL INVESTIGATION
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Intro to potential to kinetic energy
• The impact of gravity and mass
• What impact does gravity have on a vehicle traveling
down a hill?
• Framing the Lesson:
• Many of the roads in Los Angeles are not perfectly level,
and as a result this may impact the fuel efficiency of the
vehicle.
LESSON 6:
DOWNHILL INVESTIGATION
• Setting up the Downhill ramp
• The use of the downhill ramp to show how the potential
energy is converted to kinetic
• The limit of the kinetic energy is limited to the amount of
potential energy, which is determined by the incline of the
ramp
**LESSON 7 UPHILL CLIMB**
• Purpose of Lesson
• Students are introduced to potential energy and its
relationship with kinetic energy
• How can energy be transferred from kinetic to potential
energy?
• Framing the Lesson
• Students are asked to take into account the road
conditions all across California
• Are roads always flat or there bumps, hills, and other problems?
LESSON 7 UPHILL CLIMB
• Challenge
• Students are given three different inclines and measure the
speed their vehicles are able to obtain while traveling over
the hill.
• For our purposes only one incline will be used, the severe
incline.
• Outcome
• Students are able to show where potential energy is the
highest/ where kinetic energy is lost
LESSON 7 UPHILL CLIMB
• Share out the discovered rules of building
LESSON 7 WRAP UP
• Review of worksheet
• Strategies used
• Post-it reflection
LESSON 8:
CAR COLLISIONS
• Purpose of Lesson:
• Directly address the PE we are focusing on
• Students plan an investigation to see how collisions impact
motion
• Investigation into balanced and unbalanced forces
• Framing the Lesson:
• Based on PhET simulations and applying their knowledge of
forces, students will plan how they can test the safety of
their vehicle and give it a rating.
CAR COLLISIONS
• http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/collisionlab
• This allows students to see how mass and velocity factor into
a collision
• Based on their observations students must plan how to rate
their
• How would you plan an investigation to assign a
safety rating?
CAR COLLISIONS
• Josh and Geoff’s investigation
• Stock car with mass that can be added or subtracted
• A ramp set to a decline that is held constant
• Students place car at the end of the ramp and measure
how far their car travels after the collision, the smaller the
distance traveled, the higher the safety rating
**LESSON 9 CAR COURSE**
• Purpose of Lesson
• Culminating Task
• Framing the Lesson
• This is the final test of the vehicles you have created, the
results of this test will be used in your write up to explain how
well your car is able to perform.
LESSON 9 CAR COURSE
• Students calculate the total average speed for
running the entire course, to goal is to travel at the
highest speed
• Once students have run all of their trials they are
expected to compile all of their investigations and
complete a write up
LESSON 9 WRITE UP
• Using all of the data from the prior investigations,
students write a proposal or create a pamphlet as to
why their vehicle should be chosen by the City of Los
Angeles
• Students must include
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Summary of cars overall performance
Explanation as to why their car performed the way it did
Explanation is supported by their data
What materials were used to build their car
Possible problems/ challenges and solutions
Considerations and implications for the future
Reflection on the design process

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