Social Ecological Model ppt

Teaching Social
Ecological Models of
physical activity
Where do you start?
Assoc Prof Amanda Telford
Teaching Social Ecological ModelsWhere do you start?
New to the 2011-2014 study design in Unit 3, Area of Study 1, in
VCE Physical Education (2011–2014) is the Social Ecological
Model. This concepts relates specifically to Unit 3, Area of Study 1,
Monitoring and promotion of physical activity. More specifically in
relates to the following:
Key Knowledge
• components of social-ecological models: (individual, social
environment, physical environment and policy); the relationship
between the multiple levels of influence and physical activity.
Key Skills
• identify the components of the social-ecological model
• apply the social-ecological model to critique physical activity
strategies used by government and non-government organisations
to target two subpopulation groups.
As a starting point read the
• VCAA Bulletin VCE Physical Education (2011–2014)
Unit 3 on Social Ecological Model
– prepared by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority
in consultation with Helen Brown (Deakin University), Professor
Jo Salmon (Deakin University) and Associate Professor Amanda
Telford (University of Ballarat).
– This is a must read document that provides the basics needed to
inform the development of resources, assessment and the end of
year examination.
• Chapter 2 Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4
(5th Edition)
– This chapter outlines clearly the relevant information & provides
lots of examples
An ecological perspective suggests
reciprocal causation between the individual
and the environment
In other words, individual behaviour can
influence the environment, and the environment
can influence individual behaviour.
– Social–ecological models are not only used to predict
physical activity behaviour; they have also been used
in areas such as eating behaviour, smoking, sexual
behaviour, cultural influences in child abuse, and
workplace occupational health and safety.
– It is important to understand that no single factor
on its own can lead to behaviour change
Two extremely important points to
remember are that:
• ecological models of physical activity reinforce
the interplay of demographic, psychological,
social and environmental variables influencing
physical activity behaviour
• social–ecological models of physical activity are
characterised by multiple levels of influence on
behaviour and an emphasis on environmental
and policy influences.
Multiple levels of influence
Within the social–ecological model,
physical activity behaviour is viewed as
being determined by factors at four levels:
individual, intrapersonal, physical
environment and policy.
– It is these factors that need to be targeted
when designing physical activity intervention
Levels of influence of physical
Individual factors
Physical environment
Individual (intrapersonal) factors
These are individual characteristics, such
as attitudes, behaviour, self concept,
behavioural skills (for example, goal
setting, or fundamental motor skill
confidence) and knowledge (for example,
of the advantages of being active).
Intervention strategies at an
intrapersonal level might include:
• educational programs (for example, a step
class or Pilates program)
• support groups (for example, walking groups)
• organisational incentives directed at
individuals (for example, subsidised gym
memberships for staff who go to the gym at
least once per week)
• counselling
• mass media, by targeting individuals to
consider being more active (although the
message is aimed at the population level.
Interpersonal (social)
This refers to the formal and informal social
climate and support network and systems
surrounding an individual.
– Supportive behaviours can be provided by primary
groups, which include the family, work group and
friendship circle. Examples of supportive behaviours
include providing or sharing transportation to sport or
a park, encouraging someone to be active, offering to
be active with someone, and helping to pay fees.
– Interpersonal relationships with family, friends, work
colleagues and neighbours are all important
influences on physical activity.
Interpersonal (social) intervention
– Strategies should focus on changing the culture (the
nature of the existing social relationships) to
encourage and provide support for physical activity.
While the ultimate target of the strategies may be to
increase physical activity in individuals, the interim
targets are the social norms and social influences.
– For example, to increase the physical activity of
individuals in a community aged care facility, the
interim target is to create a lifestyle activity culture
within the facility.
Physical environment
• The physical environment, both natural and constructed, plays a
huge role in influencing physical activity behaviour. Natural features
such as trees, water (beaches, rivers, lakes, creeks), grasslands
and wildlife can create an attractive environment in which to be
• The built environment refers to constructed (man made) features
such as ovals, gymnasiums, court areas, fields, grandstands,
changing facilities and amenities, pools, car parking and so on.
• The built environment also includes changes to terrain (for example,
the creation or levelling of hills) and structural changes such as
walking trails, boardwalks and cycling paths.
– Many new housing estates build walking trails, cycling paths, parklands
and even water features to incorporate opportunities for recreation into
the natural features in the environment.
Intervention strategies within the
physical environment
• Improved accessibility, e.g. Introducing ramps or
smooth surfaces so that people using
wheelchairs can access the area safely.
• New recreational or sporting facilities may be
built close to a school, community shopping
centre or aged care facility to ensure they are
accessible to specific target groups.
• Traffic calming to increase safety for pedestrians
may be introduced around school areas in order
to encourage more children to walk or ride
bicycles to school.
Policy and organisational
Policies may be defined as laws,
regulations, formal rules, informal rules or
understandings that are adopted on a
collected basis to guide individual and
collective behaviour
Organisational factors
These are the organisational characteristics of
social institutions, and include rules (formal &
informal), regulations, guidelines and
governance of operation.
Policy strategies
• Policies can relate to the governance of incentives,
resources and infrastructures for activity or inactivity
(Sallis & Owen,1999).
• Such policies might include employees being paid an
extra $500 per year if they use a gym or personal trainer
(governance of incentives), or a principal staffing a
secondary school so that at least one physical education
teacher is allocated to every 100 students (governance
of resources).
– See Chapter 2 Nelson PE VCE Units 3&4 (5th Ed) for lots of examples
There are many ways to
present this model
Adapted from Sallis & Owen (1999)
Here is a simple
framework to use
when teaching the
Social Ecological
Have students role play
examples of factors
influencing PA within
the various levels of
Source: Chapter 2 Nelson PE VCE Units 3&4 (5th Ed)
Social-ecological model of adult
and children’s physical activity
This model can be applied to specific
target groups in this case: youth
Source: Salmon, Jo (2010) 'Factors in Youth Physical Activity Participation: From
Psychological Aspects To Environmental Correlates', Research in Sports Medicine, 18: 1, 26 — 36
Key skill: apply the social-ecological model to critique physical activity
strategies used by government and non-government organisations to
target two subpopulation groups.
Source: Nelson PE VCE Units 3&4 (5th Ed)
Source: Nelson PE VCE Units 3&4 (5th Ed)
To change physical activity behaviour multiple
levels of influence need to be targeted
Get students to think
about what strategies
could be employed at
your school within
each level of influence
Critique physical activity strategies used to target two
subpopulation groups continued…
Source: Nelson PE VCE Units 3&4 (5th Ed)
Elder, J P, Lytle, L, Sallis, J F, Young, D R, Steckler, A, Simons-Morton, D, Stone, E,
Jobe, J E, Stevens, J, Lohman, T, Webber, L, Pate, R, Saksvig, B I and Ribisl K
2007, ‘A Description of the Social-Ecological Framework used in the Trial of Activity
for Adolescent Girls’, Health Education Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 155–165.
Malpeli R, Telford A, Whittle R & M Corrie. Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4
(5th Ed) Cengage Publishing
Sallis J & Owen N. (1999). Physical Activity & Behavioural Medicine. SAGE
Publications, Inc. California.
Salmon, Jo (2010) 'Factors in Youth Physical Activity Participation: From
Psychological Aspects To Environmental Correlates', Research in Sports Medicine,
18: 1, 26 — 36
Salmon J, King A. (2005). Population approaches to increasing physical activity
among children and adults. In D Crawford and R Jeffrey (Eds). Obesity prevention in
the 21st century: Public health approaches to tackle the obesity pandemic. Oxford
University Press.

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