GCSE PE Revision

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GCSE PE Revision
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An Introduction to Physical Education
Competence
Performance
Creativity
Healthy, Active Lifestyles
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Key Concepts
This involves the skills you learn and how you
apply them. It is also about how ready you are
in body and mind to perform them.
 E.g. In football you should learn how to pass
 E.g. Knowing when to shoot in basketball
 In Netball not getting out of breath after 5 mins
Remember
S - Skills
A - Apply
R - Readiness
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Competence
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Producing effective outcomes when
participating in physical activities.
Performing well – being physically able and
having good skills
Knowing what is required to perform skills
well
E.g. read a game of football well and make a
successful pass at the right time
Performance
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Exploring and experimenting with techniques,
tactics and ideas in order to do well.
Using your imagination
E.g. trying out different tactics in badminton to
see what works well
E.g. linking a set of skills together in a
imaginative way in gymnastics
Creativity
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Understanding the purpose of physical activity
in making us healthy.
Understanding that exercise makes you fitter
and happier.
E.g. taking part in a regular hockey session
would make you fitter.
Healthy, Active Lifestyles
Running
Jumping
Throwing
Kicking
Hitting
Catching
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Fundamental Motor Skills
Decisions made by:
Participants
Coaches/Leaders
Officials
Decision Making
Rules protect players, leaders and
officials.
 If rules are followed accidents are less
likely to occur.
 Rules ensure fair play.
 Rules make the game more enjoyable.
 Etiquette in sport is known as
sportsmanship. This is a code of
behaviour that compliments the rules.
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Abiding by the rules,
etiquette and sportsmanship
Cardiovascular Endurance or
Stamina
 Muscular Endurance
 Speed
 Strength
 Flexibility
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The Components of Fitness
and a Healthy Balanced
Lifestyle
Warm Up
 Prepares the body and mind
for exercise.
 Decreases the chance of injury.
 Reduces the likelihood of
muscle soreness.
 Increase in muscle temperature
helps ensure there is more
energy
 And therefore muscles are
more flexible.
 Improves speed and strength
of muscular contraction.
Cool Down
 Speeds up removal of lactic acid.
 Decreases the risk of injury.
 Reduces the likelihood of muscle
soreness/aches.
 Prevents blood pooling.
 Prevents fatigue.
 Prevents dizziness.
 Gradually reduces heart
rate/breathing rate/temperature.
The Importance of Warming
Up and Cooling Down
Efficiency – not wasting energy
 Pre-determined – knowing what you want to
achieve
 Coordinated – linking things together well
 Fluent – movements are flowing and smooth
 Aesthetic – skills look good

E.g. A badminton serve beats the opponent and
lands inside the court
E.g. A gymnastics routine is fluent and coordinated
The Characteristics of
Skilful Movement
Setting goals:
 Motivates people to exercise
 Helps improve performance
 Can increase confidence
 Controls anxiety/worry
 There are two types of goal:
 Performance Goal
 Outcome Goal
Goal Setting
Performance Goals
 Relate directly to improving the
performance of the technique or tactic.
 E.g. improve running technique in
sprinting
Outcome Goals
 Are concerned with the end result.
 E.g. to win a football match
Performance and
Outcome Goals
To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess
them.
One way is by Health Screening e.g.
 BMI (testing the body mass index or body composition)

weight / height squared
Testing cholesterol, blood glucose and iron levels
 Heart rate/resting heart rate – ideal is between 60 and 80
 Blood pressure – normal is 120/80
 Family history
Use a PARQ – Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

Assessing the Body’s
Readiness for Exercise
To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess
them.
Another way is by Fitness Testing e.g.
 Assessing Cardiovascular Endurance or Stamina (test for V02 Max) –
Multistage Fitness Test or 12 Minute Cooper Run
 Assessing Strength – Grip Strength Dynamometer (squeeze it as
hard as possible).
 Assessing Speed – 30m Sprint
 Assessing Flexibility – Sit and Reach Test
Tests must be reliable and valid – check equipment is working, make
sure it is measured accurately and consistently.
Assessing the Body’s
Readiness for Exercise
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Carbohydrates –
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Fats –
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essential for good health e.g. calcium for healthy bones and teeth
found in dairy products such as milk
Water –
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prevents disease and illness e.g. fruit
Minerals –
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essential for growth and repair of tissue e.g. meat
Vitamins –
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give us energy, protect vital organs e.g. cakes , oily fish
Proteins –
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give us energy e.g. pasta
helps remove waste products, regulates body temperature, prevents
dizziness and fatigue
Fibre –
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helps digestion e.g. cereal, vegetables
Components of a Healthy Diet
Eating a healthy, balanced diet
 Maintaining a balance of food intake and
energy expenditure (exercise)
 Regular exercise – government
recommends 1 hour on 5 or more days a
week
 Maintaining a healthy body weight
 Not Smoking
 Sensible Alcohol Consumption
 Maintain low levels of stress
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Characteristics of a
Healthy Lifestyle
Age – discrimination, lack of confidence
 Gender – stereotyping, discrimination, less women take part
 Disability – lack of facilities, lack of confidence
 Alcohol Consumption
 Smoking – get out of breath, illnesses, less stamina
 Over/Under Eating – too heavy, not enough energy, lack of
motivation
 Performance Enhancing Drugs – addiction, depression,
disqualification, banned from sport, death
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Factors Affecting Performance
and Participation
Satisfaction with Aspects of Life
 Frequency of Positive and Negative Feelings
 Frequency of Activities that have a Positive
Affect on Well-Being
 Access to Green Space
 Level of Participation in Activities
 Positive Mental Health
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Indicators of Health and
Well-Being
Circuit Training
 Aerobics (Body Pump, Spinning, Dance Exercise)
 Aqua Aerobics
 Yoga
 Pilates
 Continuous Training
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Methods of Exercise and
Training
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3/4 adults have taken part in some sport, game or physical activity in the last 12 months.
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In terms of participation the 5 most popular sports amongst adults in the UK are:
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Walking 46%
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Swimming 35%
o
Keep Fit/Yoga 22%
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Cycling 19%
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Cue Sports (Snooker/Pool) 17%
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Participation rates by gender and age:
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51% Men and 36% Women participate in regular exercise
o
44% Men and 31% Women belong to a sports club
o
40% Men and 14% Women enter sporting competitions
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Women’s participation in football and rugby are now much higher than in the past and this is on the
rise.
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The proportion of adults who take part in at least one sport generally decreases with age.
o
77% of 16 – 19 year olds take part in at least sport
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30% of 70+ year olds take part in at least 1 sport
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Participation in some activities is strongly related to age:
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Soccer, cue sports, running and cycling are more popular amongst younger age groups
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Golf is popular amongst adults with an average age of 42 but many adults up to 69 take part
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Swimming/keep fit/yoga is popular amongst adults between 16 and 44 but this then declines
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Bowls is popular amongst adults between 60 and 69 years old
Levels of Participation in the UK
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Health Reasons
To manage stress
To feel good
To have a good sense of well-being
To live longer
To improve or maintain an image
For enjoyment
To meet new people or to make friends
As a hobby
To please or to copy parents or role models
To make money or as a job
Reasons for Participation
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Health Reasons
Disability
Injury
Discrimination
Lack of Time/Other Pressures
Cultural
Peer Pressure
Technology
Lack of Confidence
Lack of encouragement or Positive Influences
Lack of Opportunities due to Facilities
Lack of Money
Reasons for Non-Participation
Access to facilities
 Ethnicity
 Religion
 Environment
 Climate
 Cultural barriers
 Funding barriers
 Time
 Resources
 Peer Pressure
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Social, Cultural and Locational
Reasons Affecting Participation
PE Lessons
 Extra-Curricular Sports Clubs
 Exam Courses e.g. GCSE PE
 Links with Local Sports Clubs
 The National Curriculum – it is compulsory
 Health Awareness Programmes
 Provides opportunities for children to follow the
key processes in physical education (as mentioned
earlier)
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School Influences on
Participation
Regular involvement in PE, Sport and Dance
 Take part in school and community sport and
dance opportunities
 To gain a qualification as a performer, leader
or official
 Being involved in challenging and complex
tasks
 Reaching the highest possible standards
 Pursuing routes into sport through
volunteering
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Pathways for Involvement
in Physical Activity

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