GCSE PE Revision

GCSE PE Revision
An Introduction to Physical Education
Healthy, Active Lifestyles
Key Concepts
This involves the skills you learn and how you
apply them. It is also about how ready you are
in body and mind to perform them.
 E.g. In football you should learn how to pass
 E.g. Knowing when to shoot in basketball
 In Netball not getting out of breath after 5 mins
S - Skills
A - Apply
R - Readiness
Producing effective outcomes when
participating in physical activities.
Performing well – being physically able and
having good skills
Knowing what is required to perform skills
E.g. read a game of football well and make a
successful pass at the right time
Exploring and experimenting with techniques,
tactics and ideas in order to do well.
Using your imagination
E.g. trying out different tactics in badminton to
see what works well
E.g. linking a set of skills together in a
imaginative way in gymnastics
Understanding the purpose of physical activity
in making us healthy.
Understanding that exercise makes you fitter
and happier.
E.g. taking part in a regular hockey session
would make you fitter.
Healthy, Active Lifestyles
Fundamental Motor Skills
Decisions made by:
Decision Making
Rules protect players, leaders and
 If rules are followed accidents are less
likely to occur.
 Rules ensure fair play.
 Rules make the game more enjoyable.
 Etiquette in sport is known as
sportsmanship. This is a code of
behaviour that compliments the rules.
Abiding by the rules,
etiquette and sportsmanship
Cardiovascular Endurance or
 Muscular Endurance
 Speed
 Strength
 Flexibility
The Components of Fitness
and a Healthy Balanced
Warm Up
 Prepares the body and mind
for exercise.
 Decreases the chance of injury.
 Reduces the likelihood of
muscle soreness.
 Increase in muscle temperature
helps ensure there is more
 And therefore muscles are
more flexible.
 Improves speed and strength
of muscular contraction.
Cool Down
 Speeds up removal of lactic acid.
 Decreases the risk of injury.
 Reduces the likelihood of muscle
 Prevents blood pooling.
 Prevents fatigue.
 Prevents dizziness.
 Gradually reduces heart
rate/breathing rate/temperature.
The Importance of Warming
Up and Cooling Down
Efficiency – not wasting energy
 Pre-determined – knowing what you want to
 Coordinated – linking things together well
 Fluent – movements are flowing and smooth
 Aesthetic – skills look good
E.g. A badminton serve beats the opponent and
lands inside the court
E.g. A gymnastics routine is fluent and coordinated
The Characteristics of
Skilful Movement
Setting goals:
 Motivates people to exercise
 Helps improve performance
 Can increase confidence
 Controls anxiety/worry
 There are two types of goal:
 Performance Goal
 Outcome Goal
Goal Setting
Performance Goals
 Relate directly to improving the
performance of the technique or tactic.
 E.g. improve running technique in
Outcome Goals
 Are concerned with the end result.
 E.g. to win a football match
Performance and
Outcome Goals
To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess
One way is by Health Screening e.g.
 BMI (testing the body mass index or body composition)
weight / height squared
Testing cholesterol, blood glucose and iron levels
 Heart rate/resting heart rate – ideal is between 60 and 80
 Blood pressure – normal is 120/80
 Family history
Use a PARQ – Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
Assessing the Body’s
Readiness for Exercise
To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess
Another way is by Fitness Testing e.g.
 Assessing Cardiovascular Endurance or Stamina (test for V02 Max) –
Multistage Fitness Test or 12 Minute Cooper Run
 Assessing Strength – Grip Strength Dynamometer (squeeze it as
hard as possible).
 Assessing Speed – 30m Sprint
 Assessing Flexibility – Sit and Reach Test
Tests must be reliable and valid – check equipment is working, make
sure it is measured accurately and consistently.
Assessing the Body’s
Readiness for Exercise
Carbohydrates –
Fats –
essential for good health e.g. calcium for healthy bones and teeth
found in dairy products such as milk
Water –
prevents disease and illness e.g. fruit
Minerals –
essential for growth and repair of tissue e.g. meat
Vitamins –
give us energy, protect vital organs e.g. cakes , oily fish
Proteins –
give us energy e.g. pasta
helps remove waste products, regulates body temperature, prevents
dizziness and fatigue
Fibre –
helps digestion e.g. cereal, vegetables
Components of a Healthy Diet
Eating a healthy, balanced diet
 Maintaining a balance of food intake and
energy expenditure (exercise)
 Regular exercise – government
recommends 1 hour on 5 or more days a
 Maintaining a healthy body weight
 Not Smoking
 Sensible Alcohol Consumption
 Maintain low levels of stress
Characteristics of a
Healthy Lifestyle
Age – discrimination, lack of confidence
 Gender – stereotyping, discrimination, less women take part
 Disability – lack of facilities, lack of confidence
 Alcohol Consumption
 Smoking – get out of breath, illnesses, less stamina
 Over/Under Eating – too heavy, not enough energy, lack of
 Performance Enhancing Drugs – addiction, depression,
disqualification, banned from sport, death
Factors Affecting Performance
and Participation
Satisfaction with Aspects of Life
 Frequency of Positive and Negative Feelings
 Frequency of Activities that have a Positive
Affect on Well-Being
 Access to Green Space
 Level of Participation in Activities
 Positive Mental Health
Indicators of Health and
Circuit Training
 Aerobics (Body Pump, Spinning, Dance Exercise)
 Aqua Aerobics
 Yoga
 Pilates
 Continuous Training
Methods of Exercise and
3/4 adults have taken part in some sport, game or physical activity in the last 12 months.
In terms of participation the 5 most popular sports amongst adults in the UK are:
Walking 46%
Swimming 35%
Keep Fit/Yoga 22%
Cycling 19%
Cue Sports (Snooker/Pool) 17%
Participation rates by gender and age:
51% Men and 36% Women participate in regular exercise
44% Men and 31% Women belong to a sports club
40% Men and 14% Women enter sporting competitions
Women’s participation in football and rugby are now much higher than in the past and this is on the
The proportion of adults who take part in at least one sport generally decreases with age.
77% of 16 – 19 year olds take part in at least sport
30% of 70+ year olds take part in at least 1 sport
Participation in some activities is strongly related to age:
Soccer, cue sports, running and cycling are more popular amongst younger age groups
Golf is popular amongst adults with an average age of 42 but many adults up to 69 take part
Swimming/keep fit/yoga is popular amongst adults between 16 and 44 but this then declines
Bowls is popular amongst adults between 60 and 69 years old
Levels of Participation in the UK
Health Reasons
To manage stress
To feel good
To have a good sense of well-being
To live longer
To improve or maintain an image
For enjoyment
To meet new people or to make friends
As a hobby
To please or to copy parents or role models
To make money or as a job
Reasons for Participation
Health Reasons
Lack of Time/Other Pressures
Peer Pressure
Lack of Confidence
Lack of encouragement or Positive Influences
Lack of Opportunities due to Facilities
Lack of Money
Reasons for Non-Participation
Access to facilities
 Ethnicity
 Religion
 Environment
 Climate
 Cultural barriers
 Funding barriers
 Time
 Resources
 Peer Pressure
Social, Cultural and Locational
Reasons Affecting Participation
PE Lessons
 Extra-Curricular Sports Clubs
 Exam Courses e.g. GCSE PE
 Links with Local Sports Clubs
 The National Curriculum – it is compulsory
 Health Awareness Programmes
 Provides opportunities for children to follow the
key processes in physical education (as mentioned
School Influences on
Regular involvement in PE, Sport and Dance
 Take part in school and community sport and
dance opportunities
 To gain a qualification as a performer, leader
or official
 Being involved in challenging and complex
 Reaching the highest possible standards
 Pursuing routes into sport through
Pathways for Involvement
in Physical Activity

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