Infant and Toddler Development Part I: Theories & Principles

Report
CHILD DEVELOPMENT 3-12
PART I: AGES 3 TO 5
OKLAHOMA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
CORE IN-SERVICE
FEBRUARY 5, 2010
9:00-11:00 A.M.
Debbie Richardson, Ph.D.
Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist
Human Development & Family Science
Oklahoma State University
INTRODUCTION

Welcome

Centra Instructions

Overview of In-service

Resource Materials
2
IN-SERVICE OBJECTIVE
Extension Educators will be able to
describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and
abilities of 3 to 5 year-old children
including physical, cognitive,
emotional, and social development.
3
DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT
Physical
Emotional
Cognitive
Social

All areas are developing at the same time.

They are related and influence each other.

Development may not be even in all domains.

Important to respect each child as individual.
4
PHYSICAL DOMAIN
 Changes
in body
size & proportions
 Appearance
 Brain
development
 Nervous
system’s
coordination of
perception and
movement
 Senses
 Motor
capacities
 Physical
health
 Dexterity
 Comfort
with one’s
body as it changes
and matures
5
COGNITIVE DOMAIN
 Mental
processes
 Thinking, perception, reasoning
 Intellectual abilities
 Academic & everyday knowledge/skills
 Attention
 Memory
 Concept development
 Problem solving
 Imagination
 Creativity
 Language
6
EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL
DOMAINS





Emotions & emotional
communication

Self-understanding
Interactions with others;
involvement in social
groups
Ability to manage
one’s own feelings

Knowledge about
other people

Moral reasoning

Behavior

Personal traits
Social & interpersonal
skills
Friendships and
intimate relationships
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THEORIES AND FRAMEWORKS
OF DEVELOPMENT
A
theory of child development is a belief
system about how and why children grow,
learn, and behave as they do.
 Grow
out of efforts to make sense of scientific
observations; research tests and supports
hypotheses.
 Schools
of thought, paradigms, perspectives
 Different
theoretical frameworks are useful
for understanding different areas of
behavior.
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PHYSICAL
DEVELOPMENT
9
Ages 3-5
MATURATIONIST
GESELL

Most of what children become is inherited at birth.

Behaviors simply unfold as children mature with age.




Some characteristics of children are genetically
determined at birth (i.e. interpersonal styles,
temperament).
Environment plays a minor role.
Typical growth and development patterns –
developmental milestones when certain
characteristics could be expected to emerge.
Universal sequential steps.
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BODY GROWTH

At age 3 - about 25 to 44 lbs. and 34” to 43”

Height: adds 2”-3” per year

Weight: adds about 4-5 lbs. per year

Develops taller, leaner appearance

Length of skull increases slightly

Jaws enlarge

At age 3, has all 20 primary teeth

Face becomes larger and features more distinct
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
Large muscle/motor
Fine muscle/motor
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PHYSICAL ACTIVITY


Inactive preschoolers are 4 times more
likely than active peers to gain body
fatness as they enter first grade.
Guidelines for preschoolers:
(Nat’l Association for Sport & Physical Education)




At least 1 hour of daily structured physical activity
1-3 hours of daily unstructured physical activity
Not sedentary for more than 1 hour at a time
except when sleeping
Indoor & outdoor areas for large muscle activities
13
EATING

Eating less

Pickier

Involve children in
mealtimes
14
SLEEP FOR PRESCHOOLERS
Typically 10-12 hrs/night
 Naps decrease
 Difficulty falling asleep
& waking up during
night can be common
 Less sleep → More
behavior problems
 Development of
imagination may result
in nighttime fears &
nightmares
 Sleepwalking & sleep
terrors peak at this stage

Maintain a regular and
consistent sleep schedule
 Relaxing bedtime routine
that ends in child’s room
 Same sleeping
environment every night,
in a cool, quiet and dark
room without TV

15
BRAIN/NERVOUS SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT

90% of adult brain size by age 6

Activity peak at age 4

Synaptic pruning



Most rapid growth in frontal lobe area responsible for
planning & organization of new actions, behavior, motor
control, regulation of emotions, maintaining attention
Senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, & taste fully
developed.
Lateralization continues
 Handedness
 Eye preference
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COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT
17
Ages 3-5
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET
PREOPERATIONAL PHASE: 2-4 YEARS






Rapid increase in language
Can’t yet perform mental
operations
Egocentrism in language
and perceptions
Beginning symbolic rather
than simple motor play
Use symbols and internal
thought to solve problems
but dominated by
perception
Represent objects beyond
immediate view







Thinking tied to concrete
objects and “here & now”
Difficult to conceptualize time
Errors understanding cause &
effect; fooled by appearance
Irreversibility
Thinking influenced by
fantasy, the way he'd like
things to be
Assumes others see situations
from his viewpoint
Changes information input 18
to fit his ideas
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET
INTUITIVE PHASE: 4-7 YEARS


Speech becomes more social, less egocentric
Has intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas,
yet still tends to focus attention on one aspect of an
object while ignoring others

Concepts formed are crude and irreversible

Easy to believe in magical; reality not firm

Perceptions dominate judgment


In moral-ethical realm, unable to show principles
underlying best behavior
Rules undeveloped; only uses simple do's & don'ts
imposed by authority
19
SOCIOCULTURAL
VYGOTSKY





Children’s understanding of world is acquired
through language, problem-solving, interactions,
play.
Learning leads to development; active, internal
construction of knowledge through action.
Must take into account cultural influences.
Learning is a social process in which teachers,
adults, and other children form supportive
“scaffolding” on which a child can gradually master
new skills (e.g. asking questions, prompting).
Zone of proximal development – when a solution to a
problem is just beyond the child’s ability level.
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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING
BANDURA
 Behavior
is learned through observation &
imitation.
 Behavioral
change is largely a social process.
 Importance
of cognition, thinking – children’s
ability to listen, remember, and abstract
general rules from complex sets of observed
behavior affects their imitation and learning.
 Strong
emphasis on how children think about
themselves and other people.
21
THINKING & LEARNING
Increases in:
 Curiosity
 Cause & effect experimentation
 Attention
 Planning skills
 Memory skills
 Problem-solving skills
HANDS-ON learning is KEY!
Knowledge & skills are acquired by “doing”
22
MORE THINKING

Trouble thinking about two aspects of the same problem

Thinking based on observation and concrete experience

Increasing understanding of:
 spatial concepts (up/down, over/under)
 time concepts (today, yesterday, tomorrow)
 ability to sort things by category (food, animals,
flowers)
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COMMUNICATION & LANGUAGE

Rapidly expanding vocabulary




learn average 50 new words per month
Understand more words than can speak
Age 3 – use about 1,200 words
Age 5 – use about 2,000+ words

Increasingly complex sentences and conversations

Increasing use of correct grammar

Making up and telling stories

Improved listening skills

Asks why/what/who/how come

Develop ability to think aloud or talk to themselves
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SOCIAL &
EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
25
Ages 3-5
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
ERIKSON


Basic Trust Vs. Mistrust (Hope)
Infancy through 1 to 2 years
To learn others can be trusted to satisfy basic needs.
Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (Will)
About 18 mo./2 yrs. to 3½ yrs
To develop sense of self-sufficiency in satisfying one’s
needs.
o Initiative Vs. Guilt (Purpose)
About 3 ½ to 6 years
Feel free to act, create, express self creatively, and to
take risks.
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3 YEARS









Understands taking turns,
but not always willing
Not capable of sharing
May struggle with adults
Friendly and eager to please
Enjoys talking &
conversation
Enjoys playing with peers
Joins in simple games and
group activities
Enjoys make-believe play






Can sit and listen to stories
for up to 10 min. without
bothering others
More aware of others’
feelings & shows concern
Can follow brief
instructions, accept
suggestions
Can make simple choices
Little reasoning ability –
does not relate actions to
results
Express intense feelings 27
Fears
4 YEARS










Cooperates with others
Still working at taking
turns

Makes friends with peers;

may have best friend
May have imaginary friend 

Enjoys make-believe play
Participates in group

activities
Doesn’t like being left out

Seeks adult approval
Wants to try things by self 
Can follow rules, do’s/don’ts”
Delights in silliness & humor
“Bathroom” talk; shock words
Tests limits
May be bossy, tattle, brag,
stretch truth, rough, impatient
Increasing self-regulation of
behaviors & emotions
Fears may persist
Sense of identity – self,
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sexuality, ethnicity, etc.
5 YEARS







Affectionate and caring
toward others
Enjoys friendships; has 1-2
special friends; same-sex
Understands sharing toys
Takes turns but still may
not be willing
Generally follows adults’
directions; cooperates with
requests
Wants to be “good”, yet
unable to admit
wrongdoing
Doesn’t always tell truth






Can be empathetic
Understands power of
rejection
Likes to help with chores and
feel important
Boasts of accomplishments;
likes praise, wants to please
Can sit and pay attention for
15-20 min.
Likes to act like grown-ups,
serious, demands
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RELATED ISSUES
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Ages 3-5
CHILD CARE & PRESCHOOL

Quality preschools and early learning centers are
linked to positive social and academic outcomes

Head Start

Oklahoma 4-year old Pre-K
31
SCHOOL READINESS


Ready to learn
Much more than academics of knowing alphabet
and counting

Physical abilities – large & fine muscle skills

Language skills

Self-control

Social skills

Well-being

Desire to learn
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OK KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS
SURVEY ABOUT SCHOOL ENTRY
72% indicated delays in social &
1,213 surveys emotional development
somewhat or very often:
2006-2007
• ability to follow instructions
30% of students not • persisting on a task
performing at K level • responding to solutions for
conflict
16% of students not • playing cooperatively
performing based on
• identifying & regulating
social & emotional
emotions
development
• Participating in social
conversations
33
SCHOOL READINESS
“The ability of a child to be fully engaged
in the classroom is also affected by their social and
emotional health, including getting along with others,
following instructions, and regulating emotions and
behaviors” (SmartStart Oklahoma).
Studies also suggest that “the emotional, social and
behavioral competence of young children…predict
their academic performance in first grade, over and
above their cognitive skills and family backgrounds”
(Raver & Knitzer, 2002).
POSITIVE SOCIAL SKILLS
Research suggests…

Importance of achieving
minimal social competence by age 6

Can lead to development of positive peer
relationships, acceptance and friendships

Reduces later risk behaviors and social
problems

Healthy social development ≠ being social
butterfly
35
FACILITATING SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
Parents/caregivers:
• are physically & emotionally responsive, sensitive
• encourage children to engage & interact with variety of
people and objects in everyday activities
• help children feel accepted
• assist children in learning to communicate
and get along with others
• encourage feelings of empathy and mutual
respect among children and adults
 Provide accessible toys and play materials that
child experiences as challenging & engaging
36
IMPORTANCE OF PLAY

Play is a child’s way of learning and discovery

Play is essential – experience is the teacher

Exploration facilitates understanding how world works

Learn to master skills such as: use symbols, language,
communicate, higher levels of thinking, flexible
problem-solving, organizing, planning, social skills

Advances physical development, dexterity, coordination

Imaginative play - pretending

Work things out through trial and error

Reduces tension & stress; express emotions

Play is a process, not a product
37
TV/MEDIA
3 TO 6-8 YEAR OLDS



Sensitive to stimulation and modeling
Can be swayed by how things appear rather than how
things really are; Can’t filter out the negative
Generally judge characters or actions as “real” simply due
to observing through TV’s “magic window”

Often believe in magical, supernatural creatures & powers

Can recognize “good” and “bad” characters



Sensory, emotional, & physical deprivation and/or
overstimulation can occur
Does not offer opportunities for active play and interactive
exploration
Readily imitate aggressive or violent characters
GENDER DIFFERENCES
IN PRESCHOOLERS










Identify themselves as male or female
Tend to judge others’ genders based on superficial
characteristics (e.g., hair, stereotypical male/female tasks)
Differences in behavior may be apparent
Nature & nurture influence
Boys are hard-wired to enjoy spatial-mechanical play – enjoy
large space to run, trucks, tools, weapons
Girls have higher levels of hormone oxytocin encouraging
love and care for dolls
Relate to peers differently – rough-housing vs. relationship
building; object-oriented vs. person-related aggression
Boys don’t hear as well as girls
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Girls verbal skills develop earlier
Girls tend to use all senses; boys rely primarily on visual cues
PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
FREUD
A particular body region is the focus of
sensual satisfactions.

Oral – birth to age 1: mouth, tongue,
gums; emotional attachment to person
providing satisfactions (i.e. feeding)

Anal – 1 to 3 years: control and selfcontrol (i.e. elimination, tolieting)

Phallic – 3 to 6 years: derive pleasure
from genital stimulation; interested in
physical differences between the sexes;
identify with same-sex parent
40
SEXUALITY
Curious and interested in:
 Where babies come from
 Exploring other children’s and adults’ bodies and
differences between children and adults
 Playing “doctor” and pretending to be mommy/daddy are
common
 Genital touching increases, especially if tired or upset
 3-4 year-olds still may be concerned about bowel
movements and urination
 Around age 4, girls may develop more intense attachment
to father and boys to mother
 Begin to have sense of modesty and understand difference
41
between public and private behavior
DISCUSSION & QUESTIONS
42
WRAP-UP

Watch video clips and review resource materials

In-service evaluation

Next Session on Ages 6-9: Friday, Feb. 12, 9–11am

Child Care & Early Childhood Education in-service:
April 16 in Stillwater
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