Christian Magallon, Fhaiza Raza, Carla N. Saldana, and Rahul Ragu WRITING 101, University of California, Merced Introduction Our main focus in this study is: bias in the workplace concerning leadership, power, and perception. By Definition: Bias Leadership Power Perception Fact or Fiction Men & Women are Equal? In 2006 men held 98% of the CEO positions in large corporations with only 2% women CEOs (Eli, 2006). Methodology Our research was obtained through many searches on the University of California, Merced’s library data base. Over 278 studies preceded using key descriptive words: women, power, perceptions, gender bias, sexual discrimination and leadership. Leadership & Power Characteristics more male oriented (Koch, Loft, and Kruse, 2005). Men perceive appropriate characteristics to male oriented (Brenner , Tomkiewicz and Schein, 1989). Employers prefer masculine gender characteristics to feminine characteristics (Goktepe & Craig, 1989). Leadership & Power contd. Idea of an accepted gender bias This lack of stimuli results in a reduction in chances of women to take on a leadership role (Carbonell & Castro, 2008). Intimidation and feeling of doubt or inadequacy Leadership & Power contd. Occupational Climate (Katz, 1987). Applied pressures People follow trends Perceptions Top down (Trentham, & Larwood 1998) Manager’s qualities (Prime, Jonsen,Carter, & Maznevski 2008) Management ratings (Shore 1992) Perceptions contd. Gender role (Wolf, & Flingstein 2009) Gender qualities (Johanson 2008) Past/future measures (Tougas, & Beaton 1993) Best Perceived Candidate (Haslam & Ryan, 2008) Conclusion Despite the belief that men and women are equal, statistics and research show otherwise. Shows that biases contribute to perceptions of leadership, and power that keep men and women from reaching equality. The extensive data collection through research are FACTS not FICTION. However, results of studies and interpretation are subject to biases. Limitations Biased interpretations of results of supporting research articles. Biased interpretations of results of supporting research articles. False belief in glass ceiling hypothesis. Women who are surveyed will give socially acceptable answers. Organizations may not want to be studied. Future Studies & Implications Studies today focus only on negative stereotypes (Hoyt & Blalscovich, 2007). New research should include: early intervention, mentoring, programs to increase early exposure and support for effected individuals Leadership development Improving the situation at the lower levels of hierarchies References Adler, M. A. (1994). Male-Female power differences at work: A comparison of supervisor and policymakers. Sociological Inquiry, 64(1), 37-55. Avolio, B. J., Mhatre, K., Norman, S. M., & Lester, P. (2009). The moderating effect of gender on leadership intervention impact: An exploratory review. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 325-341. Baxter, J., & Wright, E. O. (2000). The glass ceiling hypothesis: A comparative study of the united states, sweden, and australia. Gender & Society, 14(2), 275-294. Bosak, J., & Sczesny, S. (2008). Am I the Right Candidate? Self-Ascribed Fit of Women and Men to a Leadership Position. Sex Roles, 58, 682-688. Brenner, O. C., Tomkiewicz, J., & Schein, V. E. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics revisited. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 662-669. Carbonell, J.L., Castro, Y. (2008). The impact of a leader model on high dominant women’s self-selection for leadership. Sex Roles ,58,776-783. Cann, A., & Siegfried, W. D. (1990). Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior. Sex Roles, 23(7/8), 413-419. EliLilly & Company. (2006). Statistics: women leaders in America. Company Confidential Copyright 2000. Retreived from www.hrresearch.org/MBA410/Andi_Slides.ppt Equal pay act turns 40 (2003, June 10). U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from http://archive.eeoc.gov/epa/anniversary/epa-40.html Goktepe, J.R., Craig, E.S. (1989). Role of sex, gender roles, and attraction in predicting emergent leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 165-167. Haslam, A.S., & Ryan, M.K. (2008). The road to the glass cliff: differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 530-546. Hopkins, M. M., O'Neil, D. A., Passarelli, A., & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women's leadership development strategic practices for women and organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60(4), 348-365. Hoyt, C.L., and Blalscovich, J. (2007). Leadership efficacy and women leaders' responses to stereotype activation. Group processes intergroup relations,10, 595. Jaffee, D. (1989). Gender inequality in workplace autonomy and authority. Social Science Quarterly, 70(2), 375-390. Johanson, J.C. (2008). Perceptions of femininity in leadership: modern trend or classic component?. Sex Roles, 58, 784-789. Katz, D. (1987). Sex discrimination in hiring: The influence of organizational climate and need for approval on decision making behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(1), 11-20. Koch, S. C., Luft, R., & Kruse, L. (2005). Women and leadership - 20 years later: A semantic connotation study. Social Science Information, 44(1), 9-39. Mano-Negrin, R. (2004). Gender inequality and employment policy in the public sector. Administration and Society, 36(4), 454-477. McTavish, D., & Miller, K. (2009). Gender balance in leadership? Reform and modernization in the UK further education sector. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37(3), 350-365. Prime,J., Jonsen, K., Carter, N., and Maznevski, M.L. (2008). Managers' perceptions of women and men leaders: A cross cultural comparison. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8, 171. Reskin, B. F., & Ross, C. E. (1992). Jobs, authority, and earnings among managers: The continuing significance of sex. Work and occupations, 19(4), 342-365. Roos, P. A. (1981). Sex stratification in the workplace: Male-Female differences in economic returns to occupation. Social Science Research, 10(3), 195-224. Shore, T. H. (1992). Subtle gender bias in the assessment of managerial potential. Sex Roles, 27(9-10), 499-515. Tougas, F., & Beaton, A.M. (1993). Affirmative action in the work place: for better or for worse. International Association of Applied psychology, 42(3), 253-264. Trentham, S., & Larwood, L. (1998). Gender discrimination and the workplace: An examination of rational bias theory. Sex Roles, 38(1-2), 1-28. What is AWID? (2008). The Association for Women’s Rights in Development. Retrieved from http://www.awid.org/About-AWID/What-is-AWID. Wolf, W. C., & Fligstein, N. D. (1979). Sex and authority in the workplace: The causes of sexual inequality. American Sociological Review, 44, 235-252.