Expanding the Capabilities and Use of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Amit J. Mokashi and Richard D. Stewart 1 Scope & Motivation • CFIRE project on mining AIS data (RI-4). • UWS tasks: – to review literature on use of AIS – prepare write up on why AIS was developed and original intended uses – prepare case studies of current uses of AIS 2 The Sailboats of Ancient Mesopotamia 2000 – 3000 BC http://www.brighthubengineering.com/marine-history/78133-the-sailboats-of-ancient-mesopotamia/#imgn_1 3 Thomas W. Lawson 1902 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-7szpkJA_KkM/TVhocUpYA0I/AAAAAAAAJdQ/9vLuZFlLWyw/s1600/CL0375b%252B.jpg 4 Compass Ancient Chinese Compass 4th Century BC Modern Chinese Compass http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00YvfEScpJEAko/Magnetic-Compass.jpg http://www.mychinesestudy.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/%E5%8F%B8%E5%8D%97.jpg 5 Sextant Ancient Arab Sextant 9th Century http://www.mat.uc.pt/~helios/Mestre/Novemb00/H61iflan.htm Modern Sextant http://sextantblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/dreikreis-front.jpg 6 Other Navigational Aids NRL's XAF “flying bedspring” Radar 1938 Decca Navigator System 1945 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Decca_Navigator_Mk_12.jpg http://www.nrl.navy.mil/PressReleases/2013/XAF-Nat-Elec-Museum_112-13r_1712x2560.jpg 7 Other Navigational Aids LORAN GPS http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Early_maritime_GPS_receiver.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Loran_C_Navigator.jpg 8 Limitations of Legacy Navigation Aids • Lack of two-way communication – Communication of ship’s position to other vessels/entities has to be done by traditional VHF • Increased risk of error due to bad communication • Inadequate support for Search-and-Rescue – Radar-SART (Search And Rescue Transponder) requires continuous updates for a rescuer to lockon to. 9 Performance S-Curves of Innovation Applied to Navigation Aids AIS GPS LORAN Decca Radar Sextant Compass Effort (Time/Funds) Foster, R.N., Innovation: The attacker's advantage. Vol. 152. 1986: Summit Books New York. 10 AIS Performance Standards MSC.74(69) Annex 3 AIS functional requirements: • Efficient navigation of ships – Collision avoidance • Protection of the environment – Information about ship and cargo • Operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) – Static, dynamic & voyage data 11 AIS Time-division Multiple Access (TDMA) 12 AIS Limitations • Human Element – Garbage in - Garbage out (Gi-Go) • Default, inaccurate, vague, flippant data entries – Improper technical setup – Intentional (hacking) /unintentional (TV) interference with GPS signal used by AIS – Policy & management issues • Frequency allocation, enforcement & data sharing 13 AIS Limitations • Technical – Limits of propagation due to earth’s curvature • 50nm (Shore stations) • 20nm (Ships) – Limits of TDMA technology (slot collision) – AIS Receiver with VHF antenna required • Limited portability – Inherited limitations of positioning system • GNSS satellite geometry • Can source location data using other means 14 Expanding Capabilities of AIS • Satellite – AIS (S-AIS) – Overcomes the range limitation of AIS – Some service providers use own satellites (exactEarth and LuxSpace) other source data from them or governments. – Data can be augmented by feed from other sources such as Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and Space-based Radar (e.g. RADARSAT) 15 Satellite - AIS 16 Expanding Capabilities of AIS • Web-based Access to AIS Data (WebVTS) – Live streaming – Free & subscription based services – Improvement in coverage using novel approaches • Free sharing of AIS data in lieu of installation of AIS receiver 17 Expanded Uses of AIS • Vessel Monitoring – Extension of AIS role from coastal to remote – Silent VTS – Traffic analysis – Risk assessment • Security • Environment – Monitoring of sensitive & protected areas – Identification of source and severity of incidence – Calculation of footprint – Risk assessment – Faster response for security • Search and Rescue triggered by lack AIS signal – Especially with S-AIS – Anomalies in vessel – Last known vessel position behavior – GPS fed AIS–SART as an – Risk assessment alternative to RADAR-SART – “Reward” assessment 18 Survey of AIS Data Service Providers’ Users 21/48 responses • • • • • • • Pilots Vessel Operators Hobbyist Academics Aquariums Bunker Providers Regulators (Federal/State/Local) • Law Enforcers • Ports • • • • • • • Freight Shippers Environmental NGOs Weather Bureaus Defense Agencies Counter Piracy Customs Search & Rescue Operators • Fisheries • Accident/Oil Spill Investigators 19 Concluding Observations • Growing diversity and numbers of users and uses of AIS • Expect increasing capability and reduced cost of AIS units as the technology matures • Understanding new capabilities would lead to identification of new opportunities • Above points should result in better value/$ for users leading to further adoption even amongst vessel types not mandated leading to even higher value to all users. 20 Acknowledgements • • • • • CFIRE consortium Survey respondents Student Research Assistants Mr. Chandler Smith of exactEarth Anonymous reviewers 21 Citations 1. 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