Expanding the capabilities and use of Automatic Identification Systems

Report
Expanding the Capabilities and Use
of Automatic Identification Systems
(AIS)
Amit J. Mokashi
and
Richard D. Stewart
1
Scope & Motivation
• CFIRE project on mining AIS data (RI-4).
• UWS tasks:
– to review literature on use of AIS
– prepare write up on why AIS was developed and
original intended uses
– prepare case studies of current uses of AIS
2
The Sailboats of Ancient Mesopotamia
2000 – 3000 BC
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/marine-history/78133-the-sailboats-of-ancient-mesopotamia/#imgn_1
3
Thomas W. Lawson 1902
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-7szpkJA_KkM/TVhocUpYA0I/AAAAAAAAJdQ/9vLuZFlLWyw/s1600/CL0375b%252B.jpg
4
Compass
Ancient Chinese Compass
4th Century BC
Modern Chinese Compass
http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00YvfEScpJEAko/Magnetic-Compass.jpg
http://www.mychinesestudy.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/%E5%8F%B8%E5%8D%97.jpg
5
Sextant
Ancient Arab Sextant
9th Century
http://www.mat.uc.pt/~helios/Mestre/Novemb00/H61iflan.htm
Modern Sextant
http://sextantblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/dreikreis-front.jpg
6
Other Navigational Aids
NRL's XAF “flying bedspring”
Radar 1938
Decca Navigator System 1945
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Decca_Navigator_Mk_12.jpg
http://www.nrl.navy.mil/PressReleases/2013/XAF-Nat-Elec-Museum_112-13r_1712x2560.jpg
7
Other Navigational Aids
LORAN
GPS
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Early_maritime_GPS_receiver.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Loran_C_Navigator.jpg
8
Limitations of Legacy Navigation Aids
• Lack of two-way communication
– Communication of ship’s position to other
vessels/entities has to be done by traditional VHF
• Increased risk of error due to bad communication
• Inadequate support for Search-and-Rescue
– Radar-SART (Search And Rescue Transponder)
requires continuous updates for a rescuer to lockon to.
9
Performance
S-Curves of Innovation Applied to
Navigation Aids
AIS
GPS
LORAN
Decca
Radar
Sextant
Compass
Effort (Time/Funds)
Foster, R.N., Innovation: The attacker's advantage. Vol. 152. 1986: Summit Books New York.
10
AIS Performance Standards
MSC.74(69) Annex 3
AIS functional requirements:
• Efficient navigation of ships
– Collision avoidance
• Protection of the environment
– Information about ship and cargo
• Operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)
– Static, dynamic & voyage data
11
AIS Time-division Multiple Access
(TDMA)
12
AIS Limitations
• Human Element
– Garbage in - Garbage out (Gi-Go)
• Default, inaccurate, vague, flippant data entries
– Improper technical setup
– Intentional (hacking) /unintentional (TV) interference
with GPS signal used by AIS
– Policy & management issues
• Frequency allocation, enforcement & data sharing
13
AIS Limitations
• Technical
– Limits of propagation due to earth’s curvature
• 50nm (Shore stations)
• 20nm (Ships)
– Limits of TDMA technology (slot collision)
– AIS Receiver with VHF antenna required
• Limited portability
– Inherited limitations of positioning system
• GNSS satellite geometry
• Can source location data using other means
14
Expanding Capabilities of AIS
• Satellite – AIS (S-AIS)
– Overcomes the range limitation of AIS
– Some service providers use own satellites
(exactEarth and LuxSpace) other source data from
them or governments.
– Data can be augmented by feed from other
sources such as Long-Range Identification and
Tracking (LRIT) and Space-based Radar (e.g.
RADARSAT)
15
Satellite - AIS
16
Expanding Capabilities of AIS
• Web-based Access to AIS Data (WebVTS)
– Live streaming
– Free & subscription based services
– Improvement in coverage using novel approaches
• Free sharing of AIS data in lieu of installation of AIS
receiver
17
Expanded Uses of AIS
• Vessel Monitoring
– Extension of AIS role from
coastal to remote
– Silent VTS
– Traffic analysis
– Risk assessment
• Security
• Environment
– Monitoring of sensitive &
protected areas
– Identification of source and
severity of incidence
– Calculation of footprint
– Risk assessment
– Faster response for security • Search and Rescue
triggered by lack AIS signal
– Especially with S-AIS
– Anomalies in vessel
– Last known vessel position
behavior
– GPS fed AIS–SART as an
– Risk assessment
alternative to RADAR-SART
– “Reward” assessment 18
Survey of AIS Data Service Providers’ Users
21/48 responses
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pilots
Vessel Operators
Hobbyist
Academics
Aquariums
Bunker Providers
Regulators
(Federal/State/Local)
• Law Enforcers
• Ports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Freight Shippers
Environmental NGOs
Weather Bureaus
Defense Agencies
Counter Piracy
Customs
Search & Rescue
Operators
• Fisheries
• Accident/Oil Spill
Investigators
19
Concluding Observations
• Growing diversity and numbers of users and
uses of AIS
• Expect increasing capability and reduced cost
of AIS units as the technology matures
• Understanding new capabilities would lead to
identification of new opportunities
• Above points should result in better value/$
for users leading to further adoption even
amongst vessel types not mandated leading to
even higher value to all users.
20
Acknowledgements
•
•
•
•
•
CFIRE consortium
Survey respondents
Student Research Assistants
Mr. Chandler Smith of exactEarth
Anonymous reviewers
21
Citations
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