Contemporary Issues in Schools - Michigan Speech

Report
Contemporary Issues in Schools –
Deborah Dixon, M.A., CCC-SLP
ASHA Director of School Services
March 21, 2013
Dearborn, Michigan
1
Disclosure
 Deborah Dixon, Director of School Services, ASHA
 Financial: I am a paid employee of ASHA
 Non-Financial: I am an ASHA member, and participate in the
School Finance Committee which supports increased
financial support and other non-financial initiatives for
school-based ASHA members. I am also a member of Special
Interest Group 16, Schools. I support ASHA’s policy agenda
which includes most advocacy initiatives supported by the
organization. Although I gain no financial benefit, I am an
author of RTI In Action , Oral and Written Language Activities
for K-2 Classrooms and the upcoming publication RTI in Action,
Grades 3-5, Oral and Written Language Activities for the
Common Core State Standards.
2
Session Focus
 The session will focus on :
 PACE, ASHA’s alternative to Value Added Assessment
 Changes that integration of Common Core State
Standards will have on speech-language services in the
school
 Information on the changing roles and responsibilities of
SLPs in school practice.
 Response to Intervention
 Other Important issues members are facing in their
current employment setting.
3
What is the state of practice
in Michigan?
4
Michigan Data
 State department of education officials report that
shortages of SLPs is a critical issue, especially in the
more rural areas of the state.
 Other evolving issues in the state include
 Teacher assessment ( Value Added Assessment)
 Engagement in Response to Intervention
 Adopting Common Core State Standards
5
Speech and Language Impairment
1992 - 2010
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
6
Autism Spectrum Disorder
1992 - 2010
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
7
Educational Environment
Students with IEPs Ages 6-12 in 2010
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
8
Educational Environment
Students with IEPs Ages 13-21 in 2010
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
9
Educational Environment
Students with IEPs Ages 6-21 in 2010
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
10
Identification Rates By Eligibility
in 2010
11
Source: Annual Special Education Child Count
What are Your issues of Concern?
Issue 3
Issue 2
Issue 1
12
What are the Issues Challenging You?
 Turn and talk to the person to your left for about 3
minutes.
 Discuss the top three issues that are impacting your
practice in the schools
 Consider volunteering to share the results of your
discussion at the end of the discussion period.
13
National Issues










Teacher Assessment- Value Added Assessment
SLP and Response to Intervention
Common Core State Standards
Caseloads/workload
Changing roles and responsibilities
Shortages
Dynamic service delivery models
Budget cuts
Paperwork
Lack of time for planning, collaboration, etc.
14
Let’s Begin
 Value Added Assessment
 What is it?
 Why is it important?
 What is ASHA’s alternative?
15
Value Added Assessment
 Value-added assessment, or VAA is a process to accurately
and fairly assess a professional’s impact on student
performance and overall success of the school community.
 A comprehensive, statistical method of analyzing test data
that measures teaching and learning, using results of high
stakes testing as well as other measures.
 VAA is a statistical method of analyzing test data to
measure teaching and learning outcomes. Teacher
contributions to student learning are determined by
calculating student growth on standardized tests.
16
How is VAA being used?
 VAA systems are being utilized to measure
teacher effectiveness through a variety of
indicators, including improved student
test scores.
 VAA results are used to make decisions
about retention, salary, bonuses,
assignments, etc.
17
What about the evaluation of SLPs
and other school professionals?
 To our knowledge very few if any states have
developed VAA measures for SLPs and other
specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs)
 Many are considering or have begun to develop
evaluation measures for SLPs including LA and OK
18
PACE- Rationale
 No systems have been developed specifically for SLPs
or other support personnel
 Systems fail to differentiate between effective and
ineffective teachers
 Systems are unrelated to professional development
and do not incorporate information about specific
teacher impact on student performance (Weisberg,
Sexton, Mulhern, & Keeling,2009)
 Current systems are not accounting for innovative
models of instructional organization
19
Background
 The research that exists about these models indicates
they are only reliable over time (i.e., based on several
years of data) with larger student populations and
when the underlying assessment instruments are fair,
accurate, and reliable. (CEC Position on Special
Education Teacher Evaluation, 2012)
 Current systems do not account for the differences in
assignments and responsibilities of various service
providers
20
Research
 Current research has focused on classroom
teachers
 Concerns
 Linking student outcomes to one teacher
 Accuracy of models
 Statistical techniques used to analyze student
data
 Separating student factors
 Research has determined that value-added
calculations are invalid for two teachers in a coteaching environment, as the statistical model
cannot determine which or by how much each
teacher impacts student learning (Steele et. al.,
2010)
21
ASHA’s Alternative to VAA
 Performance Assessment of Contributions and
Effectiveness of SLPs Resource
 A portfolio based assessment process designed to show
the value and contributions of school based SLPs.
 It involves




Self assessment
Administrative observation
Portfolio of evidence
Parent and teacher input
22
The PACE Matrix
 The matrix consists of a set of nine objectives
by which an SLP should be evaluated.
 These objectives are derived from typical roles
and responsibilities of a school based SLP
 A portfolio is developed to show evidence of
mastery of each objective
23
The Objectives
1. Demonstrate knowledge in
the subject areas of speechlanguage pathology and related
areas (e.g., literacy, child
development ) .
24
The Objectives
2. Provide appropriate and
educationally relevant services
reflecting evidence-based
practices.
25
The Objectives
3. Provide services that are
compliant with state and
federal regulations for children
with IEPs.
26
The Objectives
4. Demonstrate ability to conduct
appropriate comprehensive
evaluations for students who
may be experiencing a variety of
communication disorders.
27
The Objectives
5. Provide appropriate and
dynamic service delivery
methods consistent with
the wide variety of
individual student needs.
28
The Objectives
6. Demonstrate
collaboration with
classroom teachers and
other professionals.
29
The Objectives
7. Provide opportunities
for families to be
involved in the student’s
SLP services.
30
The Objectives
8. Earn continuing education or
professional development units
sufficient to meet ASHA requirements
for certification maintenance as well as
state certification and licensing
requirements.
31
The Objectives
9. Contribute to
various building or
district initiatives.
32
Let’s Talk
 Gather into groups of 4-5
 Discuss how you are currently evaluated within your
school district.
 What are the pros and cons of your current evaluation
system
 Would the PACE be a viable alterative for you? Why or
why not?
 Please discuss for 5 minutes and be ready to report
back a summary of your discussion.
33
Developing the Portfolio
 The portfolio is a comprehensive collection of data, the
majority of which is readily available. It should include:
 Case files to show evidence of
 report writing ( IEPs and MDEs)
 progress reports
 parent and teacher input
 Indication of meeting regulatory timelines and
procedures.
34
Developing the Portfolio
Portfolio should also include:
 Professional development log to show participation in
a variety of professional development activities
 Therapy schedules for objectives 4, 5, 6 and 9,
showing dynamic service delivery, RTI efforts, teacher
collaboration and assessment work
 Teacher, parent and student surveys
35
Developing the Portfolio
The portfolio should include:
 Self reflection from the Professional Performance Review
Process for the School-Based Speech-Language
Pathologist (2006)
 Sample presentation materials to show evidence for
objectives 1,6, and 7
 Administrator's observation report
36
PACE
 For more information, including samples of teacher,
parent and student checklists, information for
evaluators, power points etc. search “PACE” on the
ASHA website
 Or go to
http://www.asha.org/Advocacy/state/PerformanceAssessment-of-Contributions-and-Effectiveness/
37
Common Core State Standards
(CCSS)
 What are they?
 Why are they important?
 What do they look like?
 What is expected of students with
special needs?
 What is the role of the SLP in
integrating CCSS?
38
Common Core State Standards
 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been
adopted by most states across the country.
 States are in the process of adjusting curriculums and
assessments to reflect the adoption of the standards
 The purpose of the CCSS is to provide a clear set of
shared goals and expectations of the knowledge and
skills needed to succeed in a global society
39
Why Is CCSS
Important?
40
Reading Proficiency
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th grade reading
proficiency rates for 2009 in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia
41
Add to These Facts…
 Dyslexia affects one out of every
____ children – ten million in
America alone. Sally Shaywitz,
M.D.,2004
The answer is five
42
Adult Literacy
43
Key Points of Reading Standards
 The standards establish a “staircase” of increasing
complexity in what students must be able to read.
 The standards also require the progressive development
of reading comprehension so that students advancing
through the grades are able to gain more from whatever
they read.
 Through reading a diverse array of classic and
contemporary literature as well as challenging
informational texts in a range of subjects, students are
expected to build knowledge, gain insights, explore
possibilities, and broaden their perspective
44
Key points of Writing Standards
 The ability to write logical arguments based on
substantive claims, sound reasoning, and relevant
evidence is a cornerstone of the writing standards,
with opinion writing—a basic form of argument—
extending down into the earliest grades
 Research—both short, focused projects (such as
those commonly required in the workplace) and
longer term in depth research is emphasized strongly
in this set of standards
45
Key Points of Speaking and Listening
 The standards require that students gain, evaluate,
and present increasingly complex information, ideas,
and evidence through listening and speaking as well
as through media
 An important focus of the speaking and listening
standards is academic discussion in one‐on‐one,
small‐group, and whole‐class settings.
46
Key Points of Language Standards
 The standards expect that students will grow their
vocabularies through a mix of conversations, direct
instruction, and reading. The standards will help students
determine word meanings, appreciate the nuances of
words, and steadily expand their repertoire of words and
phrases.
 The standards recognize that students must be able to use
formal English in their writing and speaking but that they
must also be able to make informed, skillful choices among
the many ways to express themselves through language.
47
Common Core State Standards
 Examples of CCSS
 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when,
why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in
a text. (reading standards for Literature, grade 2 )
 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used
in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and
similes. (Reading standards for literature, grade 5 )
 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and
explain how they support the main idea.(Reading standards
for informational text, grade 3 )
48
CCSS Examples
 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather
relevant information from print and digital sources;
summarize or paraphrase information in notes and
finished work, and provide a list of sources.(5th grade
writing standard)
 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led)
with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts,
building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly
(4th grade speaking and listening standard)
49
CCSS Examples
 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard
English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
(language standard, grade 1 )
 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a
story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a decision.(Reading standard for
Literature , grade 8)
 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are
used in a text, including figurative and connotative
meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice
on meaning and tone (Reading standard for literature ,
grade 6)
50
CCSS Examples
 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points
in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent
descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use
appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear
pronunciation (Speaking and Listening, grade 7)
51
CCSS- Math Examples
 Directly compare two objects with a measurable
attribute in common, to see which object has “more
of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference.
For example, directly compare the heights of two
children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
(Math standard , grade K)
 Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to
three categories; ask and answer questions about the
total number of data points, how many in each
category, and how many more or less are in one
category than in another.(Math standard, grade 1)
52
CCSS and Students with Special
Needs
 Students with disabilities…must be challenged to
excel within the general curriculum and be prepared
for success in their post-school lives, including college
and/or careers.
53
For Students with Special Needs to
Meet Standards they Require
 High-quality, evidence-based instruction
 Accessible instructional materials
 Embedded supports
 Universal Design for Learning
 Appropriate accommodations and adaptations
 Assistive technology
 Positive behavior supports
54
For Students with Special Needs to Meet
Standards they Require
 Collaborative teaching
 Interpersonal collaboration is a style for
direct interaction between at least two co
equal parties voluntarily engaged in
shared decision making as they work
toward a common goal -Friend 2007Friend
and Cook, 2007
55
For Students with Special Needs to Meet
Standards they Require
 Service delivery options
 Dynamic service delivery- changing the frequency,
location and time of service as student’s needs change.
56
Role of the SLP
 The SLP interfaces with the CCSS in two
ways:
 Through general education
interventions like Response to
Intervention
 Providing educationally relevant
services to students with IEPs.
57
What is the Role of the SLP?
 Develop deep knowledge of the content of the
standards
 Determine the foundational skills, or underpinnings
necessary to achieve the standards
 Develop IEP goals focused on each student’s need
for support and instruction on foundational skills
related to their communication disorder
58
What Skills Are Required?
 Strong collaborative skills
 Ability to interpret research to practice
 Analytical skills
 Subject area expertise (i.e..
Communication)
59
Start with the IEP
 Analyze the student’s assessment results in terms
 Where is the student now?
 Why are they experiencing the weaknesses diagnosed?
 What do we want them to achieve this year?
60
Developing the IEP
 Recommend goals that support the “prerequisite” skills
for the standard
 Determine how progress will be measured
 Determine what general education supports need to be in
place for student achievement
 Determine how services will be delivered dynamically,
responding to the student’s progress throughout the
school year
 Discuss the roles and responsibilities of all team members
necessary to facilitate student progress on the goal and on
the standard.
61
Analyze the Standard
 Look at the student’s specific areas of weakness.
 Determine which standards are impacted by the
deficit.
 Analyze those standards to determine the
underpinnings necessary for success on that
standard.
 Develop the IEP goals to support that standard and
teach the underpinnings.
62
Let’ s Practice
 Sally – 6th grade student with weaknesses in
understanding and use of vocabulary
63
Sally’s Background Information
 Language skills are scattered
 Age-level skills in syntax
 Teacher reports
 Masters vocabulary taught in class in a limited way
 Difficulty with vocabulary understood by other students
 Always completes class and homework assignments
 Uses simple, concrete vocabulary in writing
 Written answers to questions showed misunderstanding of
terminology and misuse of new vocabulary from class
64
CCSS in
Language and Vocabulary for Grade 6
 L.6.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
 Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
 Maintain consistency in style and tone.
 L.6.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based
on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
 Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in
a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word
(e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
 Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to
find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
 Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the
inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
 L.6.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word
meanings.
 Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
 Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to
better understand each of the words.
 Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions)
(e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, thrifty).
65
Potential Causes of Her Vocabulary
Difficulties
 Limited exposure to experiences that build base
vocabulary
 Limited direct instruction on the metalinguistic skills
necessary for learning new vocabulary
 Weak categorization and classification skills
 Memory and processing issues
 Hearing loss
 Difficulties understanding figurative language
 Difficulty with base words , prefixes and suffixes
66
Next Steps for Intervention
 SLP can pre-teach meanings of common prefixes in individual
and/or small group sessions
 Collaborate with teacher to identify vocabulary from
curriculum to focus on that contained prefixes
 Identify figurative language forms in literature
 Pre-read selected sections with Sally and highlight figurative
language
 Provide in class lesson on figurative language and relation to text
for class
 Provide home practice materials for parents to reinforce
vocabulary skills
67
Goals? Objectives?
 TIMEFRAME
 CONDITION
 BEHAVIOR
 CRITERIA
 TIMEFRAME
 CONDITION
 BEHAVIOR
 CRITERIA
- By June 18, 2012
- Given sixth grade curriculum related vocabulary
- Sally will explain the meanings of words
containing common, grade-level prefixes and
suffixes
- In 4/5 opportunities
- In 18 instructional weeks
- Given sentences from fourth grade level texts
- Sally will explain the meanings of similes and
metaphors
- with 80% accuracy
68
Let’s Breakdown a Standard
 Cards with different standards have been placed
around the room.
 Please form into small groups to discuss the standard
 Choose a note taker and a speaker for your group.
 Design a set of goals that would address the
foundational skills necessary to achieve that standard.
 Be prepared to share your goals with the full group.
69
ASHA’s CCSS Resources
Does ASHA offer Common Core information and
support?
 Webpage on CCSS
 Journal articles
 Leader and Perspectives articles
 Presentations
 Technical assistance
70
What Needs to be in Place ?
 SLPS need the following to successfully integrate
CCSS into treatment:
 Appropriate workload
 Time for collaboration (joint planning periods)
 Access to appropriate materials including text books,
lesson plans, supplementary items
 Training
 Mentoring
 Opportunity for engagement in RTI and other general
education initiatives
71
Response To Intervention
Core principles
Tiers of instruction
Case studies
Instructional considerations
Role of the SLP
72
What’s Your Comfort Level with RTI?
73
RTI is a Framework
74
What Are The Components?
RTI involves:
 universal screening,
 high-quality evidence based instruction
 interventions matched to student need
 frequent measures of progress
 use of child’s response data to make
educational decisions.
75
Core Principles of RtI
(NASDE, 2005)
 All students can learn with effective
instruction utilizing scientifically research
based instruction
 intervene early
 use a multi-tier model – intervention
must be differentiated in nature and
intensity
76
Core Principles
 We must use a problem-solving model based
on data to make decisions within a multi-tier
model
• Is there a problem and what is it?
(Identification)
• Why is it happening? (Analysis)
• What are we going to do about it? (Plan)
• Did our intervention work? (Review and
Revise)
77
Tier 1
Primary instruction in the general
education classroom.
High quality instruction
 Assessment at least 3 times a
year
 Ongoing professional
development
Team agreement to implement
identified interventions.
78
Katelyn’s Story
79
Tier 2- Problem Solving With Other
Resources and Supports
Supplemental
Specialized Intervention
Targeted for Individual Student
80
Tier 2
Teacher consults with other
professionals and/or parent(s).
Additional support needed by students
struggling with learning
Frequent progress monitoring is
expected.
Supplementary
81
Henry’s Story
82
Tier 3
 Problem Solving with Student
Improvement Team; Intensive Supplemental
Interventions provided – needed by 5% of the
students
83
Tier 3
Intense
Sustained
Specifically
Focused
Differentiated
84
Samantha
85
The Process
Problem
Identification
Intervention
Planning
Problem Analysis
Monitoring and
Evaluation
Implementation
86
Sample RTI Plan Form
Behavior of Concern:
Intervention:
Who’s responsible:
Date to be collected:
Intervention start date:
Intervention review Date:
87
Instructional Considerations
 Grouping
 Direct teaching needs
 How the student’s communication
issues are addressed
 How expectations for learning are
stated
 Consideration of accommodations
and assistive technology supports
88
Instructional Considerations
More learning opportunities
Multiple exposures to
vocabulary and concepts
Issues w/ concrete to abstract
Multisensory
Universal Design for Learning
(UDL)
89
90
Environmental Considerations
Visual cues, noise level,
activity in the room, seating
arrangement, proximity to
teacher
91
Learner Considerations
 Missing prior
 Number of directions the
knowledge
student can handle at one
 Limited prerequisite time
vocabulary
 Need for multiple
repetitions
92
Curriculum Considerations
Vocabulary
Language load
of material
Coverage time
Previous access
to the general
curriculum
93
Paradigm Shift for SLPs
 Expansion of the SLP’s
assessment “tool kit” to include
more instructionally relevant,
contextually based procedures
 Engagement in prevention and
identification of at risk students
as well as direct support and
services
94
What’ s Different
Define “treatment” more globallyconsultation, collaboration, team
teaching, engaging parents,
assistants, teachers in treatment
process
95
What’s Different?
Reallocation of time to offer
prevention and early intervening
services* in a more naturalistic
setting with decrease in number of
students requiring “direct”
treatment, SLPs will have time to
address those needs
96
SLP in Tier 1
- Conduct staff training on instructional
models
- Observe student/teacher interactions
- Model instruction
- Provide materials
- Assist with screenings and progress
monitoring
- Conduct classroom-based lessons
97
SLP in Tier 2
-Continue supports from Tier 1, with
increased collaboration with and
coordination of support services
- Conduct short-term remediation
with students in increasingly
intensive levels, including small
groups and individual work
98
SLP in Tier 3
Interventions of increased intensity
and /or frequency
Conduct dynamic assessment
Serve as team member considering
child for special education
99
Role of SLP
 Explaining the role that language plays in
curriculum, assessment, and instruction, as a
basis for appropriate program design
 Explaining the interconnection between spoken
and written language
 Identifying and analyzing existing literature on
scientifically based literacy assessment and
intervention approaches
 Assisting in the selection of screening measures
100
Role of SLP
 Identify systemic patterns of student need with
respect to language skills
 Select scientifically based literacy intervention
 Conduct professional development on the
language basis of literacy and learning
 Interpret school’s progress in meeting the
intervention needs of its students
101
Role of the SLP
 Suggest strategies to the classroom teacher or to the
parent that will make the difference for the student.
 Provide short-term, focused, direct instruction, to help the
student. This also provides valuable information to the
educational team
 Provide parents with support strategies and material
102
What Are Your Thoughts?
How much should
SLPs do before
considering
making a
recommendation
of MDE?
103
Other Contemporary Issues
Realignment of Roles and
responsibilities of SLPs in
schools
104
105
Dynamic Service Delivery
dy·nam·ic /daɪˈnæmɪk/.
pertaining to or characterized by
energy or effective action;
vigorously active or forceful;
energetic: the dynamic president of
the firm.
106
Dynamic Service Delivery
 Service Delivery is becoming a dynamic
process in terms of
 Frequency
 Duration
 Location
All three of these should change throughout the course of
treatment based on student progress and need. Evidence
based practice should also be foundation to decision making.
107
Top 10 Future Trends for SLPs
Use of
Technology
108
Use of Technology
109
Use of Technology













Wikispaces
Bloglines
Online projects
Geographic information
systems
 Social networks
Mobile Devices,
Applications (APPs),
SmartBoards,
Podcasts,
Moodle,
Cloud technology
Personal websites
Skype
Telepractice
110
Use of Technology
Collect data
Record conversational samples
Motivate and engage students
Provide augmentative assistive for
communication
Offers another modality for
assessing, treating and engaging
students
111
Use of Technology
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
112
Advantages
Improved
communication
Cost and time saving
Adaptability
Motivating
Dynamic
Models appropriate use
of technology
Accesses monumental
amounts of information
Disadvantages
• Initial cost
• Connectivity/Security
limitations
 Finding the “right”
technology
 Distractibility
 Need for ongoing training
www.asha.org/SLP/schools/Applications-for-Speech-LanguagePathology-Practice/
How Shall we Respond to these
Issues?
 Demonstrate strong leadership with and
without the “official” titles
 Form partnerships
 Innovate with procedures, policies and service
delivery
 Change roles and responsibilities
 Control our destiny through involvement in
local, state and federal organizations.
113
How Do We Respond?
Providing input whenever possible
Creating new partnerships
Participating in the process
Innovating
Advocating
114
How do we need to change
 You are not “JUST” the building
SLP
 You are an educational leader
who is engaged in shaping
services for students with
communication disorders
 You are an “expert” with much
to offer students, staff, parents
and community
115
116
www.asha.org
[email protected]
117
References and Resources
 Kovaleski, J., & Prasse, D. P. (2004,
February). Response to instruction in the
identification of
learning disabilities: A guide for school teams.
Communiqué, 32(5), insert. Available:
www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/nasp_
rti.pdf
 Klinger, J. & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural
considerations with Response to Intervention
models.
Reading Research Quarterly. 41/1, 108-117.
118
References and Resources
 Kratcoski, A. M. (1998). Guidelines for using portfolios in
assessment and evaluation. Language, Speech, and
Hearing Services in Schools, 29, 3–10
 Troia, G. A. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention:
Roles for speech-language pathologists in the prevention
and identification of learning disabilities. Topics in
Language Disorders, 25, 106–119.
119
References and Resources
 Montgomery, Judy K.
Models of RTI for SLPs: Is This What We Have
Been Waiting for?
Perspectives on Language Learning and Education
2008 15: 13-21
 Peña, E., Quinn, R., & Iglesias, A. (1992). The
application of dynamic methods to language
assessment: A nonbiased procedure. The Journal of
Special Education, 26, 269–280.
120
References and Resources
 Responsiveness to Intervention: New Roles for
Speech-Language Pathologists
By Barbara J. Ehren, EdD, CCC-SLP, Judy
Montgomery, PhD, CCC-SLP, Judy Rudebusch,
EdD, CCC-SLP, and Kathleen Whitmire, PhD, CCCSLP
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
121
References and Resources
 Staskowski, M., & Rivera, E. A. (2005). Speechlanguage pathologists' involvement in responsiveness to
intervention activities: A complement to curriculumrelevant practice. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 132–
147.
 Tomblin, J. B., Zhang, X., Buckwalter, P., & O'Brien, M.
(2003). The stability of primary language disorder: Four
years after kindergarten diagnosis. Journal of Speech,
Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 1283–1296.[
122
References and Resources
 Ukrainetz, Teresa A.
The Implications of RTI and EBP for SLPs:
Commentary on L. M. Justice
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2006 37: 298303
 Implementing IDEA 2004 Part I:
Conducting Educationally Relevant
Evaluations, Technical Assistance for
Speech-Language Pathologists
(ASHA product)
123
References and Resources
 Ukrainetz, T. A., & Fresquez, E. F. (2003).
What isn't language? A qualitative study of the
role of the school speech-language pathologist.
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in
Schools, 34, 284–298
 Ukrainetz, T. A., & Trujillo, A. (1999). "You
know, I just don't know what else you'd do?"
Five SLPs' perspectives on students's literature
in speech-language intervention.
Contemporary Issues in Communication
Science and Disorders, 26, 35–48.
124
References and Resources
 National Association of State Directors of Special
Education. (2005). Response to intervention:
Policy considerations and implementation.
Available from www.nasdse.org
 Learning Disabilities Association of America.
Responsiveness to Intervention: Questions
PARENTS Must Ask. May 2006. Available at
www.LDAamerica.org
125
Resources and References
 10 Tips for Teaching Grammar According to the Common
Core by Lauren Davis.
 Ehren, B. J. , Blosser, J. , Roth, F. P. , Paul, D. R. & Nelson, N.
W. (2012, April 03). Core Commitment. The ASHA Leader.
 Blosser, J. , Roth, F. P. , Paul, D. R. , Ehren, B. J. , Nelson, N.
W. & Sturm, J. M. (2012, August 28). Integrating the Core.
The ASHA Leader.
 Core State Standards Initiative
http://www.corestandards.org/
126

similar documents