Presentation Slides

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Design for Sustainability and the Environment
Standards in Sustainable Engineering and Design
Doctor of Philosophy Viva Presentation
Alexander V. C. Plant
B.Sc.(Hons), M.A, MMC, MIED
Postgraduate Researcher
Supervisors:
Prof. David J. Harrison
Rev. Dr. Brian J. Griffiths
Design for Sustainability and the Environment
BS 8887-1
Manufacture
Assembly
Disassembly
End-of-life Processing
Research Questions
•
What types of organizations have acquired BS 8887-1?
•
What are their motives?
•
Are there examples of BS 8887-1 being used
commercially?
•
Can BS 8887-1 contribute to profit?
•
How and why has BS 8887-1 been integrated into the design
process?
•
What is the relationship between legislation and
standards?
•
What has motivated producers to consider ESD?
Research Methods
Quantitative:
•
Novel use of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) applied to
BS 8887-1 user group
•
Use of databases e.g. QA Register (United Kingdom Register
of Quality Assessed Companies), FAME (financial analysis)
and Companies House
•
Comparative analysis using data from the Office for National
Statistics (ONS)
•
Clustering data from multiple sources
•
Graphical representation of results – charts, graphs, maps etc.
•
Novel representation of SIC system as a multi-level chart
•
Quantitative analysis of qualitative data
Research Methods
Qualitative:
•
Literature review
•
Semi-structured interviews
•
Computerised qualitative data analysis
•
Cross-referencing of field data with published sources
BS 8887-1 (2006) Detailed Standard Industrial Classification
Analyses of Customer Organizations
92.5 Library Archives Museums
and Other Cultural Activities
31.6 Manufacture of Electrical
45.2 Building of Complete
Constructions or Parts Thereof; Civil Equipment not Elsewhere Classified
Engineering
29.2 Manufacture of Other
General Purpose Machinery
73.1 Research and Experimental
Development on Natural Sciences and
Engineering
29.1 Manufacture of Machinery
for the Production and Use of
Mechanical Power, Except
Aircraft, Vehicle and Cycle
Engines
74.2 Architectural and
Engineering Activities and
Related Technical Consultancy
74.8 Miscellaneous
Business Activities not
Elsewhere Classified
O
FG
28.5 Treatment and
Coating Metals, General
Mechanical Engineering
CI L
K
28.7 Manufacture of
Other Fabricated Metal
Products
D
80.4
28.3
80.2 Secondary
Education
33.1 Manufacture of
Medical and Surgical
Equipment and
Orthopaedic Appliances
M
18
33.2 Manufacture of
Instruments and Appliances
for Measuring, Checking,
Testing, Navigating and
Other Purposes, Except
Industrial Process Equipment
18.2
80.3 Higher Education
Inner ring: Section
Middle inner ring: Division
Outer ring: Group
36.6 Miscellaneous
Manufacturing not Elsewhere
Classified
35.3 Manufacture of Aircraft and
Spacecraft
25.2 Manufacture of Plastic Products
34.3 Manufacture of Parts and
Accessories for Motor Vehicles and
Their Engines
For a complete list of codes and their descriptions see: www.statistics.gov.uk/methodsquality/sic/downloads/UK_SIC_Vol1(2003).pdf
Characteristics of organizations that accessed BS 8887-1
• Commercial businesses
•
Based in England
•
Aged between 21 and 50 years old
•
Medium or large enterprises
•
Engineering companies that manufacture products and
equipment, especially electrical, electronic and
mechanical goods
•
ISO 9001 certified
Qualitative Research Method
Prepared Questions
Semi-structured Interviews
Interview 1
Interview 2
Code A
Code B
Code C
Transcription
Interview 3
Data Analysis
The thematic arrangement of data
allowed efficient comparison of related
statements from multiple sources
Quantitative Analysis of the Interview Data
•
BS 8887-1 had been read and considered at over
25% of the organizations contacted, and used by
at least nine
•
Participants were primarily interested in BS 8887-1
for its ESD content, commercial benefit attainable
through DfM and meeting legislative requirements
•
The major incentives for ESD were customer
demand, extended producer responsibility (EPR)
legislation and individuals with an interest in
sustainability
LEGISLATION AND CUSTOMER DEMAND MOTIVATE DFE IN NPD
CORE PHASES
MARKET
ISO 14001 CERTIFICATION COMMONLY REQUIRED OF SUPPLIERS
RELEVANT PRODUCT-SPECIFIC STANDARDS REFERENCED
SPECIFICATION
EPR SUPPORTED BY BS 8887-1
CONCEPTS DEVELOPED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS INCLUDING DFE
CONCEPT DESIGN
SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERED EARLY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
DFM, DFA, DFD, DFEOL APPLIED
DETAIL DESIGN
COMPANY PROCEDURES REFERRED TO BS 8887-1
STANDARDS REVIEWED FOR COMPLIANCE AND VERIFICATION
MANUFACTURE
DFD FACILITATES SEPARATION OF WEEE FROM RETURNED PRODUCT
DFD AND DFR MINIMISE REPROCESSING COST TO MANUFACTURER
SALES
DFE INCREASES PRODUCT DESIRABILITY
DFD AND DFA REDUCE WARRANTY COSTS AND FACILITATE REPAIR
USE
DFD AND DFA SUPPORT SERVICING AND PRODUCT LIFE EXTENSION
DFD AND DFR INCREASE THE VALUE OF EOL PRODUCT
DFE, DFD AND DFR REDUCE PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
The Use Of Standards In New
Product Development Model
EoL PROCESSING
BS 8887-1 USED TO INFORM THE DESIGN PROCESS, SUPPORT MANUFACTURERS
IN MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF EPR LEGISLATION, MINIMISE NEGATIVE
PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE IMPACTS AND SUPPORT DFE
STANDARDS AND DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT
Qualitative Results
•
EPR legislation stimulated sales of BS 8887-1 especially among
electronics equipment producers
•
BS 8887-1 is a good fit with best practice and has been used as a
reference source to support the complete NPD process
•
Used in design education in connection with ESD and ELV
•
ESD is motivated by legislation, profit, customer demand and
environmentally concerned individuals in positions of influence
•
Elements of BS 8887-1 have been used in connection with:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
BS 8888
DfM
DfA
DfD
DfE
VE/VA
APQP
MSS
Documentation
QFD / HoQ (Proposed)
Summary of Contribution to Knowledge
•
An analysis of the distribution of BS 8887-1 by industry
sector and other quantifiable data
•
The identification of factors that have motivated
businesses and other organizations to use BS 8887-1
•
Industrial examples of the financial benefits of applying
design principles from BS 8887-1
•
Identification of methods and techniques for
incorporating product life cycle planning, and meeting
the requirements of BS 8887-1 in NPD
•
Development of two new variants of the design process
Research Impact
•
New BSI working group formed to consider developing BS 8887 as an
ISO standard
•
BSI is now developing a DfMADE graphical handbook
•
Over 15 presentations, lecturers and conference addresses given
•
Quotes from this research were used by BSI’s Head of Marketing to
promote BS 8887 during ICoR in Glasgow
•
Three journal papers published (all as lead author, one peer reviewed)
•
Three peer reviewed journal papers pending (one as lead author)
•
Significantly raised the profile and awareness of BS 8887
•
Project website www.alexplant.co.uk receives approximately 150 visitors
worldwide each month
•
‘Design for Life’ paper used to promote the sale of a company concerned
with the development of aircraft components that last longer, and can be
disassembled and repaired more easily than the current equivalent inservice version
Conference Papers
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An
Analysis of Organizations that have Purchased BS 8887-1’, Research
Student Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 22-24 June pp. 160-162.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An
Investigation into Standards in Sustainable Design and Manufacture’,
Sustainable Innovation: Towards a Low Carbon Innovation Revolution,
Farnham Castle, 26-27 October pp.163-168.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010)
‘Sustainable Design Standards: Industrial Acceptance and Implementation’,
Design School Research Student Conference’ (DeSReS), Loughborough
University, 21 April.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Economic
benefits of Sustainable Design Standards in Industry’, Research Student
Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 21-23 June pp. 82-83. (Prize
Awarded for Oral Presentation).
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2010)
‘Design for Manufacture and Sustainability in New Product Development’,
15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in
Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value Capture, Institute
for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24 September.
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2010) ‘Sustainable
Development Strategies for Product Provision and Manufacturing
Approaches’, 15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium:
Innovation in Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value
Capture, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24
September.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Case Studies in the
Application of Sustainable Design Standards’, 16th Sustainable Design
Network (SDN) Seminar: Sustainable Consumption, Nottingham Trent
University, 4 April.
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2011) ‘Sustainable
Design Strategies for Electronics Products Utilising Life-cycle Assessment
(LCA)’, 21st International Conference on Production Research, Stuttgart,
Germany, 31 July – 4 August.
Journal Papers
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Design
Standards for Product End-of-Life Processing’, International Journal of
Sustainable Engineering, 3 (3), pp. 159-169.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Raising the
Standard: A Review of Standards and Legislation in Sustainable Product
Design’, The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers,
January/February.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2011)
‘Design for Life (and beyond)’ The Journal of the Institution of Engineering
Designers, March/April.
Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J (2012)
‘Integrating Life Cycle Design Standards in New product Development’,
Proceedings of the IMechE: Part B – Journal of Engineering Manufacture
Special Issue on ‘Sustainable Manufacturing and Key Enabling
Technologies’ (Pending).
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Sustainable
Product Development Strategies: Business Planning and Performance
Implications’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B,
Journal of Engineering Manufacture (Pending).
De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Supply Chain
Implications of Sustainable Design Strategies for Electronics Products’,
International Journal of Advanced Logistics (Pending).

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