Design for Sustainability and the Environment Standards in Sustainable Engineering and Design Doctor of Philosophy Viva Presentation Alexander V. C. Plant B.Sc.(Hons), M.A, MMC, MIED Postgraduate Researcher Supervisors: Prof. David J. Harrison Rev. Dr. Brian J. Griffiths Design for Sustainability and the Environment BS 8887-1 Manufacture Assembly Disassembly End-of-life Processing Research Questions • What types of organizations have acquired BS 8887-1? • What are their motives? • Are there examples of BS 8887-1 being used commercially? • Can BS 8887-1 contribute to profit? • How and why has BS 8887-1 been integrated into the design process? • What is the relationship between legislation and standards? • What has motivated producers to consider ESD? Research Methods Quantitative: • Novel use of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) applied to BS 8887-1 user group • Use of databases e.g. QA Register (United Kingdom Register of Quality Assessed Companies), FAME (financial analysis) and Companies House • Comparative analysis using data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) • Clustering data from multiple sources • Graphical representation of results – charts, graphs, maps etc. • Novel representation of SIC system as a multi-level chart • Quantitative analysis of qualitative data Research Methods Qualitative: • Literature review • Semi-structured interviews • Computerised qualitative data analysis • Cross-referencing of field data with published sources BS 8887-1 (2006) Detailed Standard Industrial Classification Analyses of Customer Organizations 92.5 Library Archives Museums and Other Cultural Activities 31.6 Manufacture of Electrical 45.2 Building of Complete Constructions or Parts Thereof; Civil Equipment not Elsewhere Classified Engineering 29.2 Manufacture of Other General Purpose Machinery 73.1 Research and Experimental Development on Natural Sciences and Engineering 29.1 Manufacture of Machinery for the Production and Use of Mechanical Power, Except Aircraft, Vehicle and Cycle Engines 74.2 Architectural and Engineering Activities and Related Technical Consultancy 74.8 Miscellaneous Business Activities not Elsewhere Classified O FG 28.5 Treatment and Coating Metals, General Mechanical Engineering CI L K 28.7 Manufacture of Other Fabricated Metal Products D 80.4 28.3 80.2 Secondary Education 33.1 Manufacture of Medical and Surgical Equipment and Orthopaedic Appliances M 18 33.2 Manufacture of Instruments and Appliances for Measuring, Checking, Testing, Navigating and Other Purposes, Except Industrial Process Equipment 18.2 80.3 Higher Education Inner ring: Section Middle inner ring: Division Outer ring: Group 36.6 Miscellaneous Manufacturing not Elsewhere Classified 35.3 Manufacture of Aircraft and Spacecraft 25.2 Manufacture of Plastic Products 34.3 Manufacture of Parts and Accessories for Motor Vehicles and Their Engines For a complete list of codes and their descriptions see: www.statistics.gov.uk/methodsquality/sic/downloads/UK_SIC_Vol1(2003).pdf Characteristics of organizations that accessed BS 8887-1 • Commercial businesses • Based in England • Aged between 21 and 50 years old • Medium or large enterprises • Engineering companies that manufacture products and equipment, especially electrical, electronic and mechanical goods • ISO 9001 certified Qualitative Research Method Prepared Questions Semi-structured Interviews Interview 1 Interview 2 Code A Code B Code C Transcription Interview 3 Data Analysis The thematic arrangement of data allowed efficient comparison of related statements from multiple sources Quantitative Analysis of the Interview Data • BS 8887-1 had been read and considered at over 25% of the organizations contacted, and used by at least nine • Participants were primarily interested in BS 8887-1 for its ESD content, commercial benefit attainable through DfM and meeting legislative requirements • The major incentives for ESD were customer demand, extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation and individuals with an interest in sustainability LEGISLATION AND CUSTOMER DEMAND MOTIVATE DFE IN NPD CORE PHASES MARKET ISO 14001 CERTIFICATION COMMONLY REQUIRED OF SUPPLIERS RELEVANT PRODUCT-SPECIFIC STANDARDS REFERENCED SPECIFICATION EPR SUPPORTED BY BS 8887-1 CONCEPTS DEVELOPED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS INCLUDING DFE CONCEPT DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERED EARLY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS DFM, DFA, DFD, DFEOL APPLIED DETAIL DESIGN COMPANY PROCEDURES REFERRED TO BS 8887-1 STANDARDS REVIEWED FOR COMPLIANCE AND VERIFICATION MANUFACTURE DFD FACILITATES SEPARATION OF WEEE FROM RETURNED PRODUCT DFD AND DFR MINIMISE REPROCESSING COST TO MANUFACTURER SALES DFE INCREASES PRODUCT DESIRABILITY DFD AND DFA REDUCE WARRANTY COSTS AND FACILITATE REPAIR USE DFD AND DFA SUPPORT SERVICING AND PRODUCT LIFE EXTENSION DFD AND DFR INCREASE THE VALUE OF EOL PRODUCT DFE, DFD AND DFR REDUCE PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT The Use Of Standards In New Product Development Model EoL PROCESSING BS 8887-1 USED TO INFORM THE DESIGN PROCESS, SUPPORT MANUFACTURERS IN MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF EPR LEGISLATION, MINIMISE NEGATIVE PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE IMPACTS AND SUPPORT DFE STANDARDS AND DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT Qualitative Results • EPR legislation stimulated sales of BS 8887-1 especially among electronics equipment producers • BS 8887-1 is a good fit with best practice and has been used as a reference source to support the complete NPD process • Used in design education in connection with ESD and ELV • ESD is motivated by legislation, profit, customer demand and environmentally concerned individuals in positions of influence • Elements of BS 8887-1 have been used in connection with: • • • • • • • • • • BS 8888 DfM DfA DfD DfE VE/VA APQP MSS Documentation QFD / HoQ (Proposed) Summary of Contribution to Knowledge • An analysis of the distribution of BS 8887-1 by industry sector and other quantifiable data • The identification of factors that have motivated businesses and other organizations to use BS 8887-1 • Industrial examples of the financial benefits of applying design principles from BS 8887-1 • Identification of methods and techniques for incorporating product life cycle planning, and meeting the requirements of BS 8887-1 in NPD • Development of two new variants of the design process Research Impact • New BSI working group formed to consider developing BS 8887 as an ISO standard • BSI is now developing a DfMADE graphical handbook • Over 15 presentations, lecturers and conference addresses given • Quotes from this research were used by BSI’s Head of Marketing to promote BS 8887 during ICoR in Glasgow • Three journal papers published (all as lead author, one peer reviewed) • Three peer reviewed journal papers pending (one as lead author) • Significantly raised the profile and awareness of BS 8887 • Project website www.alexplant.co.uk receives approximately 150 visitors worldwide each month • ‘Design for Life’ paper used to promote the sale of a company concerned with the development of aircraft components that last longer, and can be disassembled and repaired more easily than the current equivalent inservice version Conference Papers Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An Analysis of Organizations that have Purchased BS 8887-1’, Research Student Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 22-24 June pp. 160-162. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2009) ‘An Investigation into Standards in Sustainable Design and Manufacture’, Sustainable Innovation: Towards a Low Carbon Innovation Revolution, Farnham Castle, 26-27 October pp.163-168. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Sustainable Design Standards: Industrial Acceptance and Implementation’, Design School Research Student Conference’ (DeSReS), Loughborough University, 21 April. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Economic benefits of Sustainable Design Standards in Industry’, Research Student Conference (ReSCon), Brunel University, 21-23 June pp. 82-83. (Prize Awarded for Oral Presentation). Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2010) ‘Design for Manufacture and Sustainability in New Product Development’, 15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value Capture, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24 September. De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2010) ‘Sustainable Development Strategies for Product Provision and Manufacturing Approaches’, 15th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in Global Manufacturing – New Models for Sustainable Value Capture, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 23-24 September. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Case Studies in the Application of Sustainable Design Standards’, 16th Sustainable Design Network (SDN) Seminar: Sustainable Consumption, Nottingham Trent University, 4 April. De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2011) ‘Sustainable Design Strategies for Electronics Products Utilising Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)’, 21st International Conference on Production Research, Stuttgart, Germany, 31 July – 4 August. Journal Papers Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and Lam, B. (2010) ‘Design Standards for Product End-of-Life Processing’, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3 (3), pp. 159-169. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J. and Griffiths, B. J. (2011) ‘Raising the Standard: A Review of Standards and Legislation in Sustainable Product Design’, The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers, January/February. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J. (2011) ‘Design for Life (and beyond)’ The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers, March/April. Plant, A. V. C., Harrison, D. J., Griffiths, B. J. and De Coster, R. J (2012) ‘Integrating Life Cycle Design Standards in New product Development’, Proceedings of the IMechE: Part B – Journal of Engineering Manufacture Special Issue on ‘Sustainable Manufacturing and Key Enabling Technologies’ (Pending). De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Sustainable Product Development Strategies: Business Planning and Performance Implications’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B, Journal of Engineering Manufacture (Pending). De Coster, R. J., Bateman, R. J. and Plant, A. V. C. (2012) ‘Supply Chain Implications of Sustainable Design Strategies for Electronics Products’, International Journal of Advanced Logistics (Pending).