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Arithmetic Operations Review function statement input/output comment #include data type variable identifier constant declaration Declaration Statements string name; string firstName, lastName; int num = 10; DataType Identifier , Identifier, … ; Variable: a memory location to store data Variable value: the content in the location Identifier: the symbolic name of a variable Data Type: the type of data the variable is for A declaration tells the compiler to allocate enough memory to hold a value of this data type and to associate the identifier with this location 3 Add Two Numbers In Math S=x+y Or x+y=S How to add two numbers in C++? 5 Assignment Operator: = num1 + num2 = sum; // Valid in C++? // No Assignment statement MUST be from right to left sum = num1 + num2; // Correct! // Not “equal” Assignment statement: variable = expression; 6 Are the two statements the same? Sum = Num1 + Num2; Sum = num1 + num2; // NO! // C++ is case sensitive! 7 Arithmetic Operators Addition: + to compute Sum Subtraction: to compute Difference Multiplication: * to compute Product Division: / to compute Quotient Modulus: % to compute the remainder from integer division You MUST use operators to compute in C++! 8 Arithmetic Operators What is ** in C++? result = x ** y; // Not good! What is ^ in C++? result = x ^ y; // Not good! S = x ( y + z); //Is it good in C++? //Missing operator! S = x * ( y + z); // Good! 9 Unary Operator Unary operator: operator that has only one operand validCount ++; // validCount = validCount + 1; totalCount --; // totalCount = totalCount - 1; Binary operator: operator that has two operands num1 + num2 Semantics, Syntax, and Style total = total + 2; Semantics Increase total by 2 Assignment (right to left) Not equal Syntax Statement terminator Case sensitive Style one space before and after any operator meaningful name 11 Precedence Rules From high to low: () *, /, % +, - 12 Examples x = 8 - 4 * 2; // result: x = (8 - 4) * 2; // result: y = 8 / 4 * 2; // result: y = 8 / (4 * 2); // result: 13 More Examples z = 8 / 4 ^ 2; // No! z = 8 / 4 ** 4; // No! z=8/4*4 // Result: ? X = 5(3 – 7); //Result: ? z = 5 / (2 * 5); // Result: 0.5 or 0? 14 Integer Division vs. Float Division In Math 5 is almost always the same as 5.0 In C++ 5 is almost never the same as 5.0 Why? Store value in computer as bits, bytes. 5 is stored as an integer 5.0 is stored as a float number 15 Integer Division We can only get integers! 7/5 Quotient: 1 Remainder: 2 5/7 Quotient: 0 Remainder: 5 16 Float Division We get float result! 7.0 / 5.0 Quotient: 1.4 7 / 5.0 (Same) 7.0 / 5 (Same) 5.0 / 7 Quotient: 0.714285… As long as there is a float number in the expression, the result is a float number. 17 The Cast Functions int num1, num2; float quotient; cin >> num1 >> num2; quotient = num1 / num2; // what’s the value of quotient? // How to get float quotient? quotient = float(num1) / num2; // Use cast function float(variable) quotient = float(num1 / num2); // Integer division or float division? // Integer division! 18 Quotient (Division) Operator: / Expression 7/5 5/7 14 / 5 5 / 14 143 / 10 10 / 143 Result 1 0 2 0 14 0 19 Remainder (Modular) Operator: % Expression 7%5 5%7 14 % 5 5 % 14 143 % 10 10 % 143 Result 2 5 4 5 3 10 20 Exercises Expression Result 12 % 20 * 3 (12 % 20) * 3 12 * 3 20 % 12 * 3 12 / 20 * 3 20 / 12 * 3 20 / 12 % 3 20 % 12 % 3 21 Why Integer Division? Get $143 from ATM after class exercise: write this solution into a C++ program 143 / 50 Number of $50 bills: 2 143 % 50 Amount left after $50 bills: 43 43 / 10 Number of $10 bills: 4 43 % 10 Amount left after $10 bills: 3 Number of $1 bills: 3 22 Summary Assignment Operator total = total + num1; // from right to left Arithmetic Operators and Precedence Rules () /, %, * -, + Semantics, Syntax, and Style 23