The BIG FIVE Components of Reading

Report
The BIG FIVE
Components of Reading
Phonics
The Big Five Components of Reading
Objectives
At the end of this series of staff development,
you will be able to
– Identify the Big 5 of Reading and how you
assess each
– Discover where the Big 5 are present in your
literacy instruction
– Be intentional in planning so the Big 5 are
present in all your lessons
The Big 5 Components of Reading
Comprehension
Phonological Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Phonological Processing
Phonological
Processing
Verbal short
term memory
Word
Awareness
Phonological
Awareness
Syllable
Awareness
Rapid serial
naming
Rhymin
g
Articulation
speed
Phonemic
Awareness
Phoneme
Phoneme
Phoneme
Phoneme
Isolation Categorization Segmentation Blending
and
Identity
Phoneme
Manipulation
Phonics
Objectives
You will be able to
– Define Phonics and its components
– Learn how we assess Phonics
– Discover where Phonics is present in your
literacy instruction
– Be intentional in teaching Phonics
Vocabulary
• Graphic awareness
• Synthetic phonics
• Analytic phonics
• Structural analysis
• Elkonin Boxes
Common Core Standards
Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5)
• Look over the standards for your grade
level
• Look over the standards to see the
progression of phonics skills across the
grade levels
Writing
Independent
Reading
Balanced
Literacy
Phonics
The relationship between the sounds of a
spoken language and the letters of a written
language
Phonics
Graphic Awareness
Letter identification
Concepts about print
Spaces between words
Synthetic Phonics
Blending Consonants Vowels
Digraphs (th, sh, wh, ch)
Dipthongs (au, aw, oi, oy)
Analytic Phonics
Patterns in words
Word families
Vowel Patterns
Closed
Open
Silent ‘e’
Double vowels
Bossy ‘r’
Structural Analysis
Prefixes
Suffixes
Compound words
Contractions
Syllabication patterns
Graphic Awareness
Concepts About Print
•
•
•
•
•
•
How a book works – front, back
Title
Where to begin reading, which way to go
Punctuation
1:1 matching
What is a word? Sentence? Letter?
Page 20 in handout
Teaching the Letters
and Their Sounds
Learning letters in English is a hard task
because:
Problems with Graphic Awareness
Phonics: Letter-Sound Association
• Letters are abstract shapes and convey no
meaning
A B C D E F G H
Δ Φ Ψ έ Њ Ѓ Ђ ж
Problems with Graphic Awareness
Letter Names May Sound Alike
B “bee”
P “pee”
D “dee”
T “tee”
Problems with Graphic Awareness
Letter Shapes May Be Similar
b d p q
V W M
h n u m
l i j
Problems with Graphic Awareness
Letter Forms May Be Different
A a a
G g g
D d
E e
Problems with Graphic Awareness
Letter Sounds in Letter Names
Letter names that begin with the letter sound:
b = ‘bee’ k = ‘kay’ t = ‘tee’
Letter names that end with the letter sound:
f = ‘eff’
l = ‘ell`
x = ‘ex’
Letter names not containing the letter sound:
c = ‘see’
h = ‘aich’
w = ‘double u’
Principles of Teaching
Letter-Sound Association
• Teach sequentially and systematically
• Teach directly and explicitly
• Teach to mastery and automaticity
• Use multisensory strategies
• Teach sound to letter and letter to sound
Teaching the Sounds of Letters
Multi-Sensory
Use picture cues and motions:
Pam the lamb cries when she
is hungry. She says, “a a a”
The bouncing ball bounces all
over the floor. “b b b”
e = Jen’s Hen
i = Pickles the Pig
o = Bob the Fox
U = Tubby the Tugboat Page 21-22ff in handout
Drills for Letter-Sound Association
• Flash cards for letter names – both capital and
lower case
• Flash cards for letter sounds. Use both capital
and lower case.
• Work with 3-4 letters at a time:
– Sand
– Shaving cream
• Do not allow guessing
Letters
Consonants: b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w
xyz
Vowels: a e i o u Sometimes y w
R-controlled: ar, or, er/ir/ur
Digraphs: sh, ch, wh, th, th, ng n(k)
Diphthongs: oo, oo, ow, ou, aw, au, oi, oy
Analytic Phonics
• Patterns in words (the mind is a pattern seeker)
• Word families
– Teach the 37 most common rimes that make up 500
primary grade words
– Teach one at a time
– When children start to see the things words have in
common, they see the relationship among words.
This makes it easier for them to recognize and spell
the words
See handout p. 23-24
Synthetic Phonics
Moving to Blending of Sounds
Begin with a small set of items
Vowels: a (begin with short vowels)
Consonants: b t s f m
Words: at, am, bat, tab, sat, Sam, fat, mat
As soon as the “story” and actions for each letter
sound are taught, begin to blend the sounds into
words.
Synthetic Phonics
Teaching Blending
For “dog”
1. Write d, Point: Sound
2. Students: /d/
3. Write o, Point: sound
4. Students: /o/
5. Slide under do, Blend Blend through the vowel
6. Students: /do/
7. Write g, Point: Sound
8. Students: /g/
9. Slide under dog, Blend
10. Students: /dog/
11. What’s the word?
12. Students: dog
Synthetic Phonics
Blending with long vowel
Mile:
Write m. Point. Sound?
/m/
Write i_e. Point. Sound?
/i/
Blend. Slide
/mi/
Write l in blank. Point. Sound? /l/
Blend. Slide
/mil/
What’s the word?
mile
Synthetic Phonics
Blending 2 syllables
Replace:
Write r. Point. Sound?
Write e. Point. Sound?
Blend. Slide
Cover re.
Write p. Point. Sound?
Write l. Point. Sound?
Write a__e. Point. Sound?
Blend. Slide.
Write c. Point to ce. Sound?
Blend. Slide
Uncover first syllable. Blend.
What’s the word?
/r/
/e/
/re/
/p/
/l/
/a/
/pla/
/s/
/plas/
replace
replace
Synthetic Phonics
You try it
bad
show
make
hi
flour
steal
law
nighttime
Vowel Patterns
Six Types of English Syllables
CLOVER
Closed: vc, vcv
at, hen
le: (consonant +le) lit/tle
Open: v, cv
I, he
Vowel teams: v+v
eat, see
Vowel whiners: au, aw, oy, oi, etc.
E: silent e, vowel-consonant e like
R: r-controlled, v+r far, for, her, bird, fur
HO 25
Vowel Patterns
Closed Syllable/Open Syllable
Closed (short vowel)
rock
ask
club
west
Open (long vowel)
go
me
flu
hi
HO 26-27
Vowel Patterns
Silent e
When a word or syllable ends in e, the e
gives up all its power to make the vowel
long. The ending e becomes silent.
make
Pete
mike
bone
use
a__e
HO 28
Vowel Patterns
Vowel Teams - Vowel Walkers
When two vowels go walking, the first one does the
talking and the second one is silent.
team
day
feet
toe
aim
flue
foal
pie
fruit
May include consonants: igh, eigh
Can also be short sound: bread
HO 29
Vowel Patterns
Vowel Teams - Vowel Whiners
(Diphthongs)
2 vowels go together to make a new sound:
au, aw
fault, hawk
oi, oy
coil, boy
ou, ow
shout, cow
oo
long: moon
short: foot
HO 30
Vowel Patterns
R-controlled
Vowel plus r. R changes the sound of the vowel.
farm
for
/er/ spelling most to least common:
er
ir
ur
her
bird
fur
HO 31
Structural Analysis
Rules for Syllabication
• Count syllables
• Most common types of syllables:
– Consonant + le
– VC/CV
– V/CV
– VC/V
HO 35
Structural Analysis
Syllables: Consonant + le
• -le grabs the consonant before it and makes a
syllable; vowel sound is a schwa: e
able
a/ble
handle
han/dle
True 100% of the time in English
HO 36
Structural Analysis
Syllables: VCCV
• When there are 2 consonants between the vowels,
divide between the 2 consonants (closed syllable)
goblin
gob/lin
cotton
cot/ton
silver
sil/ver
complex
com/plex
hundred
hun/dred
instruct
in/struct
Vowel is short
HO 36
Structural Analysis
Syllables: V/CV
• When there is only 1 consonant between the
vowels, we usually divide before the consonant
(open syllable)
romance
ro/mance
rodent
ro/dent
famous
fa/mous
pecan
pe/can
dethrone
de/throne
Vowel is long
HO 37
Structural Analysis
Syllables: VC/V
• Sometimes when there is one vowel between the
consonants, we divide after the consonant (closed
syllable)
satire
sa/tire
socket
sock/et
desert
des/ert
sat/ire
Vowel is short
HO 37
Teaching Syllabication
Spot and Dot
1.
Count the number of syllables
Random = 2 syllables = you will hear 2 vowels in this
word.
2. Find the first two vowels you hear and put a dot above
them.
random
3. Draw a line between the 2 dots
.
.
4.
5.
6.
7.
.
.
random
There are 2 consonants between the dots. Divide
between them.
What kind of syllable is ran? Closed = short vowel
What kind of syllable is dom? Closed = short vowel
Pronounce word - random
HO 40
Teaching Syllabication
Spot and Dot
1.
2.
Count the number of syllables
hotel = 2 syllables = you will hear 2 vowels in this word.
Find the first two vowels you hear and put a dot above
them.
hotel
Draw a line between the 2 dots
.
3.
.
4.
5.
6.
7.
.
.
hotel
There is 1 consonant between the dots. Divide before it
(usually).
What kind of syllable is ho? Open = long vowel
What kind of syllable is tel? Closed = short vowel
Pronounce word - hotel
Teaching Syllabication
Spot and Dot
1.
2.
Count the number of syllables
lemon = 2 syllables = you will hear 2 vowels in this word.
Find the first two vowels you hear and put a dot above
them.
lemon
Draw a line between the 2 dots
.
3.
.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
.
.
lemon
There is 1 consonant between the dots. Divide before it
(usually).
What kind of syllable is le? Open = long vowel
What kind of syllable is mon? Closed = short vowel
Pronounce word – lemon
Sometimes the division goes after a single vowel
lem on lem=closed=short vowel on=closed=short vowel
You try it!
Copy Me Teaching:
computer
com pu ter
You try it:
fantastic
destroy
fan tas tic
de stroy
Structural Analysis
• Prefixes
• Suffixes
• Compound words
• Contractions
HO 41-44
Segmenting Words (Writing Skill)
Elkonin Boxes:
1. Say the word
2. Stretch the word
3. Stretch the word counting sounds
4. Make that number of boxes
5. Slide a marker into each box as you make the
sound
6. Later: Ask what sounds are heard and put out
letters for those sounds
7. Later: Write the letters that make the sounds
in the boxes
Elkonin Boxes - Introduction
Elkonin Boxes –
Sound/Spelling Connection
h
a
t
Elkonin Boxes –
Independence
m
l
l
a
a
i
n
t
t t
e
l
e
You Try Elkonin Boxes
• Make boxes for
spike
lamb
dream
spoon
You Try Elkonin Boxes
• Make boxes for
s p i k
spike
lamb
dream
spoon
l
e
a m b
d r
e a m
s p oo n
Principles of
Phonics Instruction
• Provide explicit instruction
• Model the skills
• Connect the sounds and the letters
• Use manipulatives
• Teach simple to complex
• Pronounce sounds correctly
• Provide guided practice
Assessing Phonics
• Please turn and talk about the ways you
assess phonics and if this is sufficient
Phonics
Graphic Awareness
Letter identification
Concepts about print
Spaces between words
Synthetic Phonics
Blending Consonants Vowels
Digraphs (th, sh, wh, ch)
Dipthongs (au, aw, oi, oy)
Analytic Phonics
Patterns in words
Word families
Vowel Patterns
Closed
Open
Silent ‘e’
Double vowels
Bossy ‘r’
Structural Analysis
Prefixes
Suffixes
Compound words
Contractions
Syllabication patterns
Resources for Teaching
Phonics
• http://education.uncc.edu/bric/
reading resources.htm
– Letter Naming Fluency Classroom Activities
– Nonsense Word Classroom Activities
• Handouts
• Put Reading First
• fcrr.org – Florida Center for Reading
Research
• Cool Tools
• Words Their Way
Imagine It and Phonics
• Please take out your manual and find
where your grade level standards for
phonics are taught
Phonics
Objectives
• You will be able to
– Define Phonics and its components
– Learn how we assess Phonics
– Discover where Phonics is present in your
literacy instruction
– Be intentional in teaching Phonics
Vocabulary
• Graphic awareness
• Synthetic phonics
• Analytic phonics
• Structural analysis
• Elkonin Boxes
Common Core Standards
Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5)
• Look back over the standards for your
grade level
• Talk with your partner about how you will
not only teach the standards for your
grade level, but teach previous standards
for students who need them
Vowel Patterns
Consonant + le
The –le grabs the consonant before it and
makes a syllable. The vowel sound is a
schwa:
e
fid/dle
peo/ple
fa/ble
You do it:
trouble
trou/ble
wiggle
wig/gle
able
a/ble

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