Pesticides Forum Annual Report 2012 presentation

Report
UK National Action
Plan for Pesticides:
integrating regulation and
non-regulatory
approaches
James Clarke
Chairman
[email protected]
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Presentation content
• The role of the Pesticides Forum (PF)
• Thematic strategy (for pesticides)
• The UK National Action Plan (NAP)
– EU context
– UK approach
• Indicators of Sustainable Use
– By key heading in NAP
• Summary and future plans
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Pesticides in the UK
• Pesticides Forum annual report
• Impacts and sustainable use
• PPT of data available
www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
About the
Pesticides
Forum
Members, objectives
and topics covered
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Pesticides Forum Membership Organisations
Users, Advisors, Manufacturers, Environment, Consumers
ADAS
Fresh Produce Consortium/British Retail Consortium
The Organic Sector
The Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust (GWCT)
Advisory Committee on Pesticides (ACP)
Linking the Environment & Farming (LEAF)
Agricultural Engineers Association (AEA)
National Farmers’ Union (NFU)
Agricultural Industries Confederation (AIC)
National Farmers’ Union Scotland (NFUS)
Agriculture & Horticulture Development Board (AHDB)
Pesticide Action Network (PAN-UK)
The Amenity Forum
Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC)
BASIS (Registration) Ltd
Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH)
The Co-operative Farms
SUSTAIN
Country Land & Business Association (CLA)
Unite
Crop Protection Association (CPA)
Voluntary Initiative (VI)
Environment Agency (EA)
Wildlife & Countryside LINK (WCL)
Women’s Food & Farming Union (WFU)
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Aims and Objectives
Aims:
• To oversee work under the UK National Action Plan
• To monitor the effects of policies, laws and other
initiatives that affect or are affected by the use of
pesticides, and
• To offer advice to Ministers and stakeholders
• To provide a forum for exchanging views, and where
possible to allow our stakeholders to come to a general
agreement
Specific Objectives:
• Communications
• Monitoring impacts
• Knowledge transfer
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Available from:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/pesticides-uk-national-action-plan
The UK
National Action
Plan
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Thematic strategy (for PPPs)
Authorisation
regulation
1107/2009/EC
Pre-marketing
Sustainable
Use Directive
2009/128/EC
Machinery
Directive
2009/127/EC
(Amended)
Pesticides and
Waste law
Use
Disposal/degradation
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Statistics
regulation
1185/2009/EC
National Action Plan (NAP)
• NAP setting objectives, targets, measures and
timetables
• Indicators to monitor products containing
substances of concern
• Use reduction targets if appropriate for risk
reduction
• To take account of health, social , economic and
environmental impacts, national, regional and
local conditions and other legislation (e.g. WFD)
• Public participation
• To Commission by November 2012 and reviewed 5
yearly
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
UK National Action Plan: Approach
• Outlines pesticides legislative regime
– Authorisation, MRLs, Sustainable Use Directive
• Explains government’s wider strategic priorities
– reducing burdens in business, improving productivity and
competitiveness of farming, enhancing the environment and
biodiversity
– adopting a proportionate approach to regulation and removing unnecessary burdens
• Clarifies roles
– Defra with strategic oversight, government and non-governmental
organisations to work together
• Stakeholder consultations, role for the Pesticide Forum,
supported by short-life and standing working groups
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
National Action Plan (NAP)
• Required under implementation of the
Sustainable Use Directive for PPPs
• Provides framework for:
– reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use
on human health and the environment
– promoting the use of integrated pest
management and of alternative approaches or
techniques, such as non-chemical alternatives to
pesticides.
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
National Action Plan
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
Role of PF and NAP
• Ensure appropriate regulation and
compliance
• Encourage current best practice
• Monitor progress (indicators)
• Identify and promote even better practice
– Regulation
– Industry initiatives
– Research and Development
• Short-life working groups
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
NAP – main headings
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
• Training
– Improving standards – Operators - (R), advisers
• Sales – storekeeper certification
• Information and awareness raising
– Consumer and health protection, wildlife protection
• Inspection of application equipment
– Sprayer testing (R)- every 3 years from 2020; Annual (Assurance Schemes)
• Aerial application – very limited, permitted application only
• Protection of aquatic environment and drinking water
• Risk in specific areas
– Protected areas, amenity
• Handling & storage, packaging
– Sub-group & communication
• Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – encourage and support uptake
– Baselines, sectoral needs, IPM Plans
• Indicators – Usage data (R), needs
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
Key issues: NAP
• Protection of water
• Best practice in Amenity and Amateur
• Integrated approaches
– Availability and viable techniques
– Adoption
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Indicators of
Sustainable Use
3
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 1: Training
4
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Training and Certification
Training – initial and on-going – by November 2012
• Access for users, distributors and advisors, to
recognise different roles
• Training bodies designated by the competent
authorities.
Certification - by November 2013
• Establish certification systems. Designate
competent authorities responsible for
implementation
• Establish requirements and procedures to grant,
renew and withdraw certificates.
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Training
Regulation
• Context Importance of training, market is able to meet
demand and deliver to an appropriate quality. Retailer
assurance schemes promote continuing professional
development
• Regulation Law requires that all users must be trained
initially. CRD has established system for designation of
training bodies. Content of existing training courses has been
updated
• Non-regulatory Industry has developed continuing
professional development training programmes for users
and initial and ongoing training for advisors and distributors
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 1: Indicator - User practice:
National Register of Sprayer Operators (NRoSO)
(number of members & % sprayed area)
NRoSO Members
% sprayed area covered
25,000
90
80
70
60
15,000
10,000
50
40
30
5,000
20
10
0
Source: VI Annual Report 2011-2012
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
0
% sprayed area
number of tests
20,000
Figure 2: Indicator - User Practice:
BASIS professional register (number of members)
number of members
Membership of BASIS Professional Register
5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
Source: BASIS
*2012 figure as at 31 Jan 2013
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 2: Sales
.
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Sales
• distributors of non-professional products to provide general
information on risks/mitigation/low-risk alternatives.
by November 2015
• distributers of professional products have sufficient staff
with training certificate in employment.
• Staff with certificate to be available at time of sale.
• Micro-distributors may be exempt if not selling certain types
of products.
• Member states to take measures to restrict sales of
professional products to persons holding the certificate.
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Sales
Regulation
• Context Pesticides purchased ‘on account’. Responsible
distributors make enquiries before selling to persons
‘unknown’
• Regulation Law requires: distributors to have sufficient staff
with certificate available at point of sale; any person who
purchases a pesticide to ensure end user holds a certificate;
distributors of non-professional products to provide general
information; and that storekeepers take ‘reasonable
precautions’ to protect human health and the environment
• Other measures
– High standards promoted by BASIS nominated
storekeeper certificate
– Information for non-professional products on
simple/clear labels and Amateur Liaison Group
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 3: BASIS Nominated Storekeeper (NSK) /
Amenity Storekeeper (Amenity NSK) training courses:
Total number of successful candidates
Amenity NSK,
1294
NSK, 5029
Source: BASIS
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 4: BASIS Garden Centre qualification (Guardian
Certificate in Garden Care):
number of candidates and passes
No. of candidates
No. of passes
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Year
Source: BASIS
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 3:
Information
and awareness
raising
4
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Information and awareness raising
• Member states to take measures to inform the
public and facilitate information and awareness
raising programmes
• Information should be balanced and accurate and
cover risks to human health and the environment
and use of non-chemical alternatives
• Member states to put in place systems for gathering
information on pesticide poisoning incidents
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Information and awareness raising
Regulation
• Context Active sharing of information by
government and stakeholders. EU
Commission developing guidance document
on monitoring systems
• Regulation Revised labelling to products (e.g.
hard surfaces)
• Other measures Reviews on human health
monitoring arrangements
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 5: Indicator - Consumer protection: Maximum Residues
Levels compliance
% of fruit and vegetable samples tested and found with one or more residues above the MRL
% samples with residues above MRL
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
All samples
UK samples
Other EC (non-UK)
samples
Source: Defra Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues in Food
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Non-EC samples
Figure 6: Indicator - Human health protection:
PIAP investigations
Other complaints
Alleged ill-health - unconfirmed
180
160
Number of incidents
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Source: HSE Pesticide Incident Appraisal Panel Report 2011-12
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Confirmed/likely/open
Figure 7: Indicator - Pesticide poisoning incidents
investigated by the Wildlife Incident Investigation
Scheme (WIIS)
250
Abuse
Misuse
Approved use
Unspecified use
Veterinary compounds
number of cases
200
150
100
50
0
* Numbers for 1995 refer to vertebrate incidents only .
They do not not include bees, other invertebrates or fish.
Source: CRD
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 4:
Inspection of
application
equipment
5
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Inspection of application equipment
Many different deadlines
• Certified equipment used from 2016.
– 5 yearly tests until 2020, 3 yearly thereafter
• Possible exemptions or differing arrangements for
certain types of application equipment
• Users to conduct regular calibrations and technical
checks
• Designation of bodies to conduct tests/certification
systems
• Mutual recognition of certificates
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Inspection of application equipment
Regulation
• Context Market supplies demand for annual testing
of application equipment
• Regulation New law requires all equipment to be
tested in line with requirements of the directive.
Also requires CRD to designate bodies to conduct
inspections, keep a register of inspectors and grant
certificates. Low-scale of use equipment to be
inspected every 6 years. Derogation for knapsacks
and handhelds. Professional users must carry out
regular calibration checks
• Non-regulatory measures Retailer protocols specify
annual testing of equipment
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 8: Indicator - User practice:
National Sprayer Testing Scheme (NSTS)
(number of sprayer tests and % sprayed area)
16,000
Tests
% Sprayed area covered
14,000
100
90
80
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
60
50
40
30
4,000
20
2,000
0
Source: VI Annual Report 2010-11 and NSTS /AEA (2011/2012)
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
10
0
% sprayed area
number of tests
70
Figure 9: Membership of crop assurance schemes on
holdings sampled in the United Kingdom Pesticide
Usage Survey
Percentage of sampled area grown
Percentage of holdings with crop assurance
Orchards - 2008 (n = 170)1,2
Orchards - 2008 (n = 227)1
Fodder & forage crops - 2009 (n = 688)1
Edible protected crops - 2011 (n = 237)
Outdoor vegetables- 2011 (n = 595)
Soft fruit - 2010 (n = 275)
Arable crops - 2010 (n = 544)
n = number of farms surveyed
1 = Surveys of GB only
2 = Excluding holdings only growing cider apples
0
40
20
60
%
Source: Pesticide Usage Survey
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
80
100
120
Part 5: Aerial
application
Indicators
• 408 permits issued in 2012
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Aerial spraying
• Prohibited but derogation possible if conditions met
• Designate authorities to set out conditions/
circumstances under which aerial spraying can be
carried out
• Designated authority to consider application plans
and issue permits to spray
• Monitoring to check compliance
• Records to be kept and made available to the public
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Aerial spraying
Regulation
• Regulation Law allows CRD to issue permit to
spray only when relevant conditions exist.
Aviation legislation also regulates low-flying
activities. Nature conservation legislation
also relevant where CRD permits applications
in or close to protected areas
• Non-regulatory Aerial Application Association
developing Operating Standards (best
practice guide)
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 6:
Measures to
protect the aquatic
environment and
6
drinking water
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Protection of the aquatic environment
and drinking water
• ‘Appropriate measures’ support Water
Framework Directive
• Give preference to particular products and
application techniques
• Use mitigation measures that minimise risk
of off-site pollution – including buffer zones
and safeguard zones
• Minimise or eliminate applications on manmade surfaces with risk of run-off to water
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Regulation
Protection of the aquatic environment
and drinking water
• Context Pesticide pollution of water means that UK may fail to meet
requirements of Water Framework Directive. Good understanding of
pesticides which most frequently pollute surface waters and
groundwaters
• Regulation Use of risk assessment and mitigation measures. Users to
take ‘reasonable precautions’ to protect the environment, confine spray
to target areas, minimise use in identified higher risk areas and give
preference to particular product types. Also use of water legislation
• Incentives Use of subsidies to encourage adoption of best practice
measures
• Non-regulatory Government and industry published guidance (Codes of
Practice, Voluntary Initiative, Campaign for the Farmed Environment, Get
Pelletwise, Amenity Forum), Catchment Sensitive Farming programme
• Research and Development programme to improve
– understanding of behaviour of pesticides once released into the
environment; precision of spraying; and safe disposal practice
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 10: Indicator - Surface water Drinking Water Protected Areas (DrWPAs) in England and Wales where
assessments indicate pesticides are putting WFD Article 7 compliance at risk
• 15% at risk of noncompliance
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
metaldehyde
MCPA
chlorotoluron
mecoprop-P
carbetamide
2,4-D
propyzamide
Source: Environment Agency
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 14: Indicator – Groundwater bodies in England and Wales failing WFD objectives due to pesticides
• 5% at risk of noncompliance
– bentazone
– mecoprop-P
and 5 pesticides no
longer available
Source: Environment Agency
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 16: Indicator - Number of substantiated category
1 and 2 pollution incidents for land, air or water, involving agricultural
and non-agricultural pesticides
Agricultural
number of incidents
14
Non-agricultural
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Source: Environment Agency
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 7:
Reduction of
risk in specific
areas
7
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Reduction of use or risk in specific areas
• Member states shall, taking account of hygiene, public
health and biodiversity requirements, ensure use in
minimised or prohibited in:
a. areas used by the general public or vulnerable groups (parks,
gardens, sports and recreation grounds, school grounds and
children’s playgrounds and in the close vicinity of healthcare
facilities)
b. WFD protected areas or Natura 2000 sites
c. recently treated areas accessible to agricultural workers
• The use of low-risk products and biological control measures
shall be considered in the first instance
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Reduction of use or risk in specific areas
Regulation
• Context 10% of all pesticide use in public spaces. Use in
conservation areas also subject to conditions of nature
protection legislation
• Regulation Risk assessment process considers risk to public
and workers in recently treated areas and imposes relevant
mitigation measures (worker and human health protection
legislation also relevant). Nature protection legislation
imposes enhanced controls for sensitive sites
• Non-regulatory Amenity Forum developing best practice
guidance. Training providers launching NASOR and Amenity
Assured
• Research and Development into effectiveness and cost of
integrated approaches
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 8:
Handling and storage
of pesticides &
treatment of their
packaging and
remnants
7
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Handling and storage
•
Adopt measures necessary to ensure the ensure following
professional operations do not endanger human health or the
environment
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
•
•
storage, handling, dilution and mixing before application
handling and packaging of remnants
disposal of tank mixtures after application
cleaning of equipment after application
recovery or disposal of remnants and packaging in accordance with
relevant waste legislation
Storage areas constructed to ensure they prevent ‘unwanted
releases
Adopt measures to ensure non-professional users avoid dangerous
handling operations (low-toxicity products, RTU, pack sizes)
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Handling and storage
Regulation
• Context Evidence suggests generally done to a high standard but
some groups of users better than others
• Regulation Risk assessment process identifies and mitigates risk
(e.g. use closed transfer systems, container sizes, etc). Special
requirements for authorisation of non-professional products.
Legislation on use requires adoption of ‘reasonable precautions’
and construction of storage areas to prevent unwanted releases.
Also legislation on pollution, waste, transport, accident hazards
and building standards
• Non-regulatory Government and industry guidance. Capital grants
also available in Catchment Sensitive Farming Scheme for
infrastructure investments. Pesticide Forum Container
Management Group
• Industry Voluntary Initiative promoting TOPPS guidance. BASIS
store inspection scheme. Retailer protocols require adoption of
relevant standards. Specific amenity and amateur guidance
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 20: Indicator - User practice:
Cross compliance checks, legislative breaches under SMR 9
and SMR 11 in 2011
number of inspections
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
England
Scotland
Inspections
Wales
Breaches
Source: RPA inspection records
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Northern
Ireland
Figure 21: Variation in Cross Compliance Breach Rate (SMR
9 & SMR 11) between 2006 and 2011
10%
9%
8%
% Breach Rate
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
2006
2007
England
2008
Scotland
2009
Wales
2010
Northern Ireland
Source: RPA inspection records
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
2011
Figure 22: Comparison of number of cross compliance (SMR
9 and SMR 11) breaches and breach severity in 2011
number of breaches
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
England
Scotland
WL
1%
Source: RPA inspection records
2%
Wales
3%
5%
>5% - 15%
Northern Ireland
>15%
n%= % reduction of Single Payment Scheme claim
WL = Warning letter
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 9:
Integrated Pest
Management
(IPM)
7
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Integrated Pest Management
• Take measures to promote low-input pest management (IPM and
organic farming) – giving priority to non-chemical methods
• Establish and support establishment of conditions for
implementation of IPM, ensuring users have information and tools
to monitor pests and make decisions and access to advisory services
• Report to the Commission on the way in which and how successful
they have been, in meeting these requirements by 30 June 2013
• Describe in NAP how they will ensure general principles of IPM are
implemented by users by 1 January 2014
• Establish appropriate incentives to encourage users to implement
crop or sector specific IPM guidelines on voluntary basis. Guidelines
can be drawn up by public bodies or user organisations
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Integrated Pest Management
Regulation
• Context Many users adopting elements of an integrated
approach. Barriers to uptake are lack of quality and
consistent level of control
• Regulation Training programmes must cover integrated
approaches. Biopesticides Scheme to support registration of
products
• Incentives Government support for farmers converting to
organic production
• Non-regulatory Retailer protocols promote practices
consistent with the general principles of IPM. Particular
guidance for Forestry
• Research and Development Alternative approaches
significant part of research programme
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
IPM
•
•
•
•
IPM = ICM (crop) = IFM (farm)
What is the baseline?
Sectoral needs vary
IPM Plans
– Agenda item October 2013 PF meeting
– Check list
– Greater encouragement
– Site and season specific
– Identify and monitor priorities at farm level
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 23: Indicator - User practice:
Crop Protection Management Plans (CPMPs)
(area covered in hectares)
Voluntary Initiative CPMP
LEAF Audit
1,800,000
1,600,000
hectares
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
2003/4
2004/5
2005/6
Source: VI Annual Report 2011-12
2006/7
2007/8
2008/9
2009/10
2010/11 2011/12*
(*2011/12 figure is CPMP/LEAF combined data)
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 24: Indicator - Population of selected UK farmland bird
species
Corn Bunting
Grey Partridge
Yellowhammer
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Source: Defra/British Trust for Ornithology/Joint Nature Conservation Committee/RSPB
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
All Species (19)
Figure 25: Indicator - Population of all UK bird species
1.6
Generalist farmland (7)
All (122 spp)
Specialists farmland (12)
Wood (38 spp)
Index (1970=1)
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Source: Defra
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Farmland birds (19 spp)
Seabirds (19 spp)
Figure 26: Indicator – Cumulative numbers of active substances
and products approved as biopesticides, in any one year
30
Active substances
Products
25
20
15
10
5
0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Source: HSE
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 27: Comparison of number of biopesticides (active
substances) registered in each EU member state according to the
UK definition of a biopesticide (as at May 2012)
50
Pheromone
45
Microbials & plant extracts
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Source: EU Pesticides Database, 2012
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
France
Spain
Netherlands
Italy
United Kingdom
Belgium
Sweden
Slovenia
Germany
Luxembourg
Greece
Finland
Denmark
Ireland
Cyprus
Hungary
Bulgaria
Austria
Poland
Czech
Slovakia
Portugal
Estonia
Lithuania
Latvia
Romania
0
Malta
5
Figure 28: Total number of active substances authorised* for use
on plum crops, by type (*on-label and SOLA/EAMU)
50
45
40
35
2
4
2
1
30
25
3
2
13
soil sterilant
Plant Growth Regulator (PGR)
fungicides
12
6
5
16
13
12
2005
2010
0
1995
vertebrate control
molluscicides
13
6
13
1
3
3
2
insecticides
15
10
5
2
4
15
20
15
2
4
2
2
2000
Year
Notes:
1995: 1 herbicide only available as SOLA/EAMU
2000: 1 fungicide, 1 herbicide, 1 insecticide only available as SOLA/EAMU
2005: 3 fungicides, 1 herbicide, 4 insecticides, 1 PGR only available as SOLA/EAMU
2010: 7 fungicides, 2 herbicides, 4 insecticides, 1 PGR only available as SOLA/EAMU.
Source: HSE
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
herbicides
Figure 29: Total number of active substances authorised to control
blossom wilt, plum fruit moth and perennial broad-leaved weeds in
plum crops (on-label and SOLA/EAMU)
blossom wilt
plum fruit moth
perennial broad-leaved weeds
14
12
1
10
8
1
4
1
6
4
7
1
6
4
2
0
1
1
1995
2000
7
1
Year
2005*
2010**
Notes:
2005*: the fungicide authorised for blossom wilt control is only available as a SOLA/EAMU
2010**: 5 out of the 7 fungicides authorised for blossom wilt control are only available as
SOLAs/EAMUs
Source: HSE
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 30: Indicator – Pesticide Availability - Total number of active
substances authorised* for use on winter oilseed rape crops, by type
(*on-label and SOLA/EAMU)
90
vertebrate control
80
soil sterilant
3
3
70
2
3
2
60
pheromone
3
3
2
3
food storage
4
molluscicide
2
2
2
3
Plant Growth Regulator (PGR)
4
21
50
2
16
17
12
insecticide
fungicide
40
herbicide
20
18
24
24
1995
2000
30
19
21
20
10
22
23
2005
2010
0
Source: HSE
Year
Notes:
Active substances not used by growers:
1995: 4 herbicides, 5 insecticides, 1 PGR, 3 soil sterilants
2000: 2 herbicides, 3 insecticides, 1 PGR, 3 soil sterilants
2005: 1 fungicide, 1 insecticide, 1 molluscicide, 3 soil sterilants; 1 herbicide only available as SOLA/EAMU
2010: 2 fungicides, 1 herbicide, 2 insecticides, 1 molluscicide, 2 soil sterilants, 1 vertebrate control agent; 2 herbicides only available as
SOLA/EAMU
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 31: Indicator - Pesticide Availability – Total number of active
substances authorised* to control phoma canker, cabbage stem flea
beetle and cleavers in winter oilseed rape crops
(*on-label and SOLA/EAMU)
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
11
12
14
11
cleavers
cabbage stem flea beetle
20
17
13
15
13
14
16
16
1995
2000
2005
2010
phoma canker
Year
Source: HSE
Notes:
2005: one herbicide authorised for cleaver control is only available as SOLA/EAMU
2010: one herbicide authorised for cleaver control is only available as SOLA/EAMU
See Figure 32 for numbers of active substances used by growers against the target pests.
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 32: Total number of active substances (probably) used by growers to
control phoma canker, cabbage stem flea beetle and cleavers in winter
oilseed rape crops (on-label and SOLA/EAMU)
40
35
30
6
25
11
8
9
cleavers
20
15
14
13
10
11
10
12
cabbage stem flea beetle
phoma canker
10
5
0
1995
2000
Year
13
13
2005
2010
Notes:
For 2005 and 2010: one herbicide authorised for cleaver control is only available as SOLA/EAMU
Source: HSE
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Part 10:
Indicators
10
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Indicators
• Member States shall: calculate the harmonised risk
indicators using the sales and usage data collected
under the statistics regulation; identify trends in
the use of certain active substances; identify
substances, crops, regions or practices that require
attention or are examples of good practice
• Member states shall communicate the results of
these evaluations to the Commission
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
R&D
Assurance
schemes
Indicators
Regulation
• Context Sophisticated and long-standing suite of
indicators prepared by Pesticides Forum. Awaiting
development of EU HAIR indicators
• Regulatory measures Collection of pesticide usage
and sales data. Food residue monitoring
programme. Number of human health monitoring
surveys (being reviewed)
• Non-regulatory Wildlife Incident monitoring
schemes
• Research and development Pest, weed and disease
survey reports
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 36: Indicator – Pesticide Usage
Estimated annual usage for all crops in Great Britain
(tonnes of active substance applied)
25,000
Tonnes of active substance applied
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010*2011*
Source: Food & Environment Research Agency (FERA) Pesticides Usage Survey
N.B. Totals exclude sulphuric acid.
* figures include Northern Ireland
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Key Issues and Pesticide Use- Arable Crops
Pest, disease, weed incidence in 2011/12
Crop
Major pest,
disease or
weed
Incidence
Impact on
pesticide use
Winter wheat
Septoria


Increased use of SDHI
fungicides & increased rates.
Winter Wheat
Fusarium ear
blight &
Microdochium
ear blight


Increased use of T3 ear wash
sprays. Seed treatment
expected to increase for 2013.
Winter wheat & barley
Aphids

=
Increased BYDV in 2012 which
could result in increased
insecticide use in 2013
Winter wheat
Black-grass

=
Increased resistance
Oilseed rape
Sclerotinia

=
Key:
Source: ADAS
Notable changes in
pesticide use


=


Large
increase
Small
increase
Normal
Small
decrease
Large
decrease
See http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/guidance/industries/pesticides/topics/about-pesticides/pest-disease-and-weed-incidence-information
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Key Issues and Pesticide Use- Arable Crops II
Pest, disease, weed incidence in 2011/12
Crop
Major pest,
disease or
weed
Incidence
Impact on
pesticide use
Potato
Late blight


Potato
Storage
diseases

=
Oilseed rape
Sclerotinia

=
Oilseed rape
Light leaf Spot

=
Maize
Eyespot


Key:
Source: ADAS
Notable changes in
pesticide use
Number of sprays increased
(from 10 per crop) as newer,
more aggressive disease
strains develop.
Recommendation that MBC,
SDHI and strobilurins are not
used more than once on their
own


=


Large
increase
Small
increase
Normal
Small
decrease
Large
decrease
See http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/guidance/industries/pesticides/topics/about-pesticides/pest-disease-and-weed-incidence-information
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Key Issues and Pesticide Use- Horticulture Crops
Pest, disease, weed incidence in 2011/12
Crop
Major pest,
disease or
weed
Incidence
Impact on
pesticide
use
Notable changes in pesticide use
Soft Fruit
(strawberry)
Slugs


High levels in the summer resulted in
increased molluscicide use.
Strawberry
Redcore


Fosetyl-aluminium (Aliette) until stocks
ran out then switched to the newly
introduced fenamidone + fosetylaluminium (fenomenal)
Apple
Apple scab


More sprays at poor timings due to
weather issues.
Carrot
All disease

=
Protectant sprays used therefore
application occurs before symptoms
Onion
Downy
Mildew


Increased use of Unicur and Valbon due
to short harvest intervals
Key:
Source: ADAS


=


Large
increase
Small
increase
Normal
Small
decrease
Large
decrease
See http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/guidance/industries/pesticides/topics/about-pesticides/pest-disease-and-weed-incidence-information
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 37: Indicator - Cropped areas (in hectares) in the UK
7000000
Set-aside
6000000
Temporary grass (< 5 years)
5000000
Crops for stockfeeding
hectares
Other crops not for stockfeed
4000000
Horticulture
Pulses
3000000
Potatoes
Sugar beet
2000000
Oilseeds
Other cereals
1000000
Spring barley
Winter barley
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
Source: Defra UK June Agricultural Survey 2012, Welsh Government
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Wheat
Figure 38: Indicator - Pesticide average inputs per crop
(kg active substance applied per hectare grown) in the UK
kg active substance applied per hectare grown
including soil sterilants
Herbicides
Fungicides
Insecticides
Growth regulators
Molluscicides
Soil sterilants
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: Pesticides Usage Survey
Surveys are not conducted annually for all crops. The most recent year of data availability is shown against each crop.
*Figures relate to GB usage only, other figures are for UK usage
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 39: Indicator - Pesticide average inputs per crop
(kg active substance applied per hectare grown) in the UK
kg active substance applied per hectare grown
excluding soil sterilants
Herbicides
Fungicides
Insecticides
Growth regulators
Molluscicides
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Source: Pesticides Usage Survey
Surveys are not conducted annually for all crops. The most recent year of data availability is shown against each crop.
*Figures relate to GB usage only, other figures are for UK usage
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Figure 40: Indicator – Pesticide average inputs for oilseed rape (kg active substance
applied per hectare grown)
in Great Britain
kg active substance applied per hectare grown
Herbicides
Fungicides
Insecticides
Growth regulators
Molluscicides
Seed treatments
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
Source: Pesticides Usage Survey
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
2006
2008
2010
Figure 41: Indicator - Herbicide use on oilseed rape
(number of products and total doses of active substances per hectare)
Average total dose (kg a.s.) applied per hectare
Average number of products per hectare
Average dose (full label units) applied per hectare
kg active substance per hectare
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
2000
2002
2004
2006
Source: Pesticides Usage Survey
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
2008
2010
Figure 42: Indicator - Insecticide use on oilseed rape
(number of products and total doses of active substances per hectare)
Average total dose (kg a.s.) applied per hectare
Average number of products per hectare
Average dose (full label units) applied per hectare
kg active substance per hectare
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
2000
Source: Pesticides Usage Survey
2002
2004
2006
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
2008
2010
Summary and
future plans
10
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Summary - usage
• Use of pesticides not impacting adversely UK health
or environment
– statutory and voluntary controls effective, but
– scope to reduce risks further
• Pesticide usage affected by season, product
availability, resistance, commodity prices
– continued decline in use of active substance
– application technology continues to improve precision of
application
• Training of pesticide users increasing
– 85% sprayed area are NRoSO members
– improvements in Amenity and for garden centre staff
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Summary – future plans
• Continue to meet challenge of securing food supply
• Continue to encourage best practice
• Implementation of National Action Plan (NAP)
– Pesticides Forum is principal stakeholder group
– Implementation of Sustainable Use Directive (SUD)
– Promotion of IPM/Integrated Crop Management (ICM)
• Short-life working groups and expert contributions
– specific topics identified by Government or stakeholders
– report back to Pesticides Forum
• Indicators
– To further align with SUD and NAP
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Priorities for 2012/13
• Protecting water
– Metaldehyde, oilseed rape herbicides
• Improving standards in non-agricultural
sectors
– Amenity; home and garden
• Promotion of IPM
Pesticides Forum will work with member organisations
and other stakeholders to help further reduce the risk to
human health and the environment
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp
Acknowledgements
• Member Organisations of the Pesticides Forum
and many others
– provide data and analysis used in Indicators
For more information see: www.pesticides.gov.uk/pesticides_forum_home.asp

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