CH. 5 Sharing Views pf Initiative with Families

CH. 5
Sharing Views pf
Initiative with Families
CD 11
Fall 2014
D. Gallegos, Child Development Instructor
Developmental Conflicts
O Below are Erickson’s stages
Child’s Stage
Approx. Age
Task (conflict)
Basic Trust vs.
Basic Mistrust
Autonomy vs.
Shame & Doubt
Preschool Years
Initiative vs. Guilt
School Age
Industry vs.
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
O The second psychosocial crisis
O The “well – parented” child emerges from this
stage sure of him/herself
elated with his/her new found control
proud rather than ashamed.
It includes stormy self – will, tantrums,
stubbornness, and negativism.
For example, one sees may 2 year olds
resolutely folding their arms to prevent their
mothers from holding their hands as they cross
the street. Also, the sound of “NO” rings
through the house or the grocery store.
Initiative vs. Guilt
O The third psychosocial crisis occurs during the
“play age”
imagine, to broaden his/her skills through active
play of all sorts, including fantasy
cooperate with others
to lead as well as to follow.
For example: Immobilized by guilt, he/she is: (1)
fearful (2) hangs on the fringes of groups (3)
continues to depend unduly on adults and (4) is
restricted both in the development of play skills
and in imagination.
Imagination and Fantasy
O During Initiative vs. Guilt stage is when
preschoolers engage in pretend play
O Value of play is highly encouraged throughout
our lifetime but mostly during the age of 3-6.
O Exploration of fears and anger are displayed at
O Play provides cognitive development that t.v. or
toys can address.
O Cognitive Dev. Is linked with physical and social
O Through play children work at problem solving
which involves mental, physical, and social skills.
Industry vs. Inferiority
O Here the child learns to master the more formal
skills of life:
(1) relating with peers according to rules
(2) progressing from free play to play that may be
elaborately structured by rules and may demand
formal teamwork, such as baseball and
(3) Homework is a necessity, and the need for selfdiscipline increases yearly.
For Example: The child who, because of his/her
successive and successful resolutions of earlier
psychosocial crisis, is trusting, autonomous, and
full of initiative will learn easily enough to be
industrious. However, the mistrusting child will
doubt the future. The shame – and guilt-filled child
will experience defeat and inferiority.
Environmental Influences
O The environment reflects whether the adults
in charge of it regard developing a sense of
initiative to be of value.
O Cultural differences
O Not all adults see giving children choices as
Group Activities
O Table 1 & 2: A parent places a 3 year old in
a play pen to play in there where all their
toys are in there. Is this parent giving the
child an opportunity for initiative? Why or
why not? Give examples
O Table 3 & 4: A preschool teacher the
classroom rules displayed but the students
continue to play inside the classroom when
it is time to work? What should the teacher
Group Activities
O Table 5 ,6 & 7: You are at Chuck e Cheese
and you see a child who is about 6 years old
and is sitting at the booth where the child
was only looking at the children playing in
the game area. The child would look at
his/her parents but would look down. What
do you think is occurring here?
Special Considerations
O When a child is in a wheelchair or has arm
braces, then accommodations are
O Restructuring the environment is vital to
help facilitate every child’s ability to explore.
O A shy child will not tell you their issues but it
is crucial to get the families input to help the
child’s transition in the classroom.
O Causes of Aggression
O Learned Aggression
O learned from watching others get what they want
through aggressive means.
O They may see this on t.v., home, or neighborhood.
O SOLUTION: Don’t turn to punishment: by hurting
them physically or emotionally
O Study has shown that children are likely to store up
frustration from being punished and vent later, using
violence that was used on them.
O POWER issues are never solved by being overpowered,
which is the message behind punishment.
O Aggression as the result of bottled-up feelings
O Some children react to tension with aggression.
O Any little frustration can cause the top to blow off the
When tension is behind the aggression, it is best to work
on the source of the tension.
O SOLUTION-Reduce frustration by providing outlets.
O Vigorous physical activities
O Aggressive activities-digging, punching, hammering, etc.
O Soothing sensory activities
O Art or music
O Physical influences on aggression
O Observations on a child’s behavior
O Diet
O Environment-physical environment: crowd,
temperature, pollution, & weather
O Extreme defensiveness
O Imagine danger everywhere and are on
defensive mode
O SOLUTION: outside help (social worker,
therapist, etc.)
Problem-Solving Skills
O Solving problems physically are signs of
O 4 weaknesses in problem-solving skills are
exhibited by teenage offenders:
O 1. They make assumptions and neglect to get
further info.
O 2. No benefit of the doubt/”everyone is out to
get them”
O 3. Narrow vision of alternative solutions and
rely mainly on violence.
O 4. They fail to consider consequences when
they lash out.
Problem-Solving Skills
O Adults can help children develop problem-solving
O Help clarify solutions
O Consider consequences
O Explore alternatives to aggression.
O Cannot be critical or judgmental
O 4 qualities in conflict situation
O 1. Firmness should come through “I won’t let you
grab or hurt”
O 2. Empathy “I know you want that toy”
O 3. Problem-solving attitude rather than a power play
“He might give it to you if you ask him”
O 4. Persistence is critical “well, asking didn’t work. I
wonder what else you could try”
Problem-Solving Skills
O Teaching alone won’t eliminate violence.
O Outside enviromental influences: home,
streets, tv, video games, modeling, &/or
victim of abuse.
O 6:30min
O Early experiences set up patterns of response
that can last a lifetime.
Empowering the Preschoolage Child
O Trying to overpower children often leads
straight to power struggles, which are the
antithesis of empowering children.
O Children want guidance and protection from
O Dramatic play is a feeling of power
O Misbehaving and making adults angry is a
power play for children.
Empowering the Preschoolage Child
O Ways adults can empower children
O 1. Teach children effective language and how to
use it.
2. Give children the support they need while they
are coming to feel their personal power.
3. Teach them problem-solving skills
Help children tune in on their uniqueness and
appreciate their differences.
We can Empower children and help them
experience a sense of their own power. WE can
empower families as well. 10:30min mark

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