Lecture 3 [pptx] - Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

Report
Exploring Hot Dense Matter at RHIC
and LHC
Peter Jacobs
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Lecture 3: Collective Flow and Hydrodynamics
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Hot Matter at RHIC and LHC - Lecture 3
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“Hydrodynamic” flow in unusual systems
1. Cornstarch+water (“oobleck”, Non-Newtonian fluid) on an
audio speaker:
http://youtu.be/3zoTKXXNQIU
2. Stream of sand particles striking a target in symmetric
geometry:
http://nagelgroup.uchicago.edu/Nagel-Group/Granular.html
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Elliptic flow of a degenerate Fermi fluid
J. Thomas et al., Duke
time
Optically trapped atoms
degenerate Fermi gas
nanokelvin temperature (!)
Interactions magnetically tuned to Feshbach
resonance
infinite 2-body scattering cross-section
prototypical“strongly-coupled” system
Prepare the system with spatial anisotropy and let it
evolve
develops momentum anisotropy
elliptic flow” (!)
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What is fluid dynamics?
Fluid dynamics = Conservation of Energy+Momentum for
long wavelength modes of excitation
breaks down for small or dilute systems
Degrees of freedom for a relativistic fluid
• fluid velocity um (4-vector)
• pressure p (scalar)
• energy density e (scalar)
• General relativity: metric tensor gmn
Quantum field theory:
• Energy-Momentum Tensor: Tmn
• Conservation of Energy+Momentum:
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Shear viscosity in fluids
Shear viscosity characterizes the efficiency
of momentum transport
quasi-particle
interaction cross
section
Comparing relativistic fluids: h/s
• s = entropy density
• scaling param. h/s emerges from relativistic hydro
eqns.
• generalization for non-rel. fluids: h/w (w=enthalpy)
(Liao and Koch, Phys.Rev. C81 (2010) 014902)
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Large s small h/s
Strongly-coupled matter
”perfect liquid”
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Gauge/string duality and the QGP
AdS/CFT correspondence (Maldacena ’97): conjecture of deep
connection in String Theory between strongly coupled non-abelian
gauge theories and weak gravity near a (higher-dimensional) black
hole
AdS/CFT correspondence = holography
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Shear viscosity and entropy in String Theory
(AdS/CFT)
h/s of a black hole (M. Natsuume, hep-ph/0700120)
Shear visc. ~ cross section:
h  lim s BH  Area
 0
Beckenstein entropy:
S BH
Area

kB
4G
h

 
~ 0.1
s 4k B
Universal result: gauge theory plasmas with gravity duals have a
universal low value h/s=1/4 at strong (‘t Hooft) coupling
Kovtun, Son and Starinets (KSS), PRL 94, 111601
(More precisely: h/s=1/4 is only Leading Order result for infinite coupling)
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Hot Matter at RHIC and LHC - Lecture 3
Back to nuclear collisions…
STAR
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Collective Flow of QCD Matter
Initial spatial anisotropy
Final momentum anisotropy
py
px
z
y

y
2
 x
2
y
2
 x
2
x
Interaction of
constituents
v2 
p x2  p y2
p x2  p y2
Elliptic flow
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A teaser: v2 at RHIC
v2 is sizable: ~10%
anisotropy
 mT
Light particles
mn
0
shear viscosityh  0
Heavy particles
Mass hierarchy vs
momentum is
characteristic of common
velocity distribution
Ideal hydro: qualitative agreement but missing the details
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Hot Matter at RHIC and LHC - Lecture 3
How do we actually measure v2?
STAR Heavy Ion event: Find momentum-weighted plane of
azimuthal view in
symmetry of the event
momentum space
(“reaction plane” ΨR )
py
px
z
y
x
p x2  p y2
Calculate the momentum-weighted
v2  2
azimuthal asymmetry relative to that plane:
p x  p y2
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Wait: can it really be that simple? Actually, no.
Initial state is (highly) non-uniform:
nucleon correlations, local hot spots of energy density,…
Theory calculation: Schenke, Jeon, Gale, PRL 106, 042301
This will bias the measurement of the reaction plane orientation:
z
y
x
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Another complication: “non-flow” from jets
RHIC/Star
Large anisotropic contribution
to momentum flow in the event
But complex and unknown
correlation with reaction plane
orientation
LHC/CMS
z
y
x
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Controlling “non-flow”
Want to remove all correlations that are not due to collective flow
of many particles:
• Measure reaction plane orientation and flow signal in widely
separated regions of phase space (large Dh separation)
• Compare cumulants of various order: 2,4,6,…particle
• cumulants are well-known in statistics: isolate true nparticle correlations by removing lower order correlations
(e.g. n particles can be mutually correlated due to 2-particle
correlations)
Methods are under good control  small systematic uncertainties
due to “non-flow” correlations
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Elliptic flow v2: LHC vs RHIC
ALICE, PRL 105, 252302 (2010)
Striking similarity of
pT-differential v2 at
RHIC and LHC
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Hydrodynamic modeling of a heavy ion collision
P. Romatschke, QM11
Shear viscosity
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Bulk viscosity
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v2: data vs. viscous hydrodynamic modeling
Song, Bass, and Heinz, arXiv:1103.2380
pT-differential
pT-integrated
central
peripheral
Preferred values: h/s(RHIC)=0.16, h/s(LHC)=0.20 …..????
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Higher harmonics
ALICE arXiv:1105.3865
ALICE: v2 and v3 have contradictory preferences for h/s
not understood
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CMS: similar ambiguities
Qualitatively: h/s is within ~2-3 times 1/4
Quantitatively: need better theoretical and experimental control
for definite measurement
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Shear viscosity: expectations from QCD
Analytic: Csernai, Kapusta and McClerran PRL 97, 152303 (2006)
Lattice: H. Meyer, PR D76, 101701R (2007)
Chiral limit,
resonance gas
pQCD w/
running coupling
1/4
Lattice QCD
Temperature (MeV)
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If TLHC > TRHICHot
, expect
h/s(LHC) > h/s(RHIC)
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Remember this plot:
QCD calculated on the lattice (mB=0)
Slow convergence to non-interacting Steffan-Boltzmann limit
What carries energy - complex bound states of q+g? “strongly-coupled” plasma?


g DOF T 4
Energy density
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S. Borsanyi et al., JHEP 1011, 077 (2010)
2
Both flow measurements and Lattice QCD calculations suggest

that the Quark-Gluon Plasma at high temperature is very
4 a simple gas of non-interacting quarks and gluons
differentTthan
Why? What are the dominant degrees of freedom (“quasiparticles”)?
We don’t know yet…
Cross-over, not sharp phase transition
(like ionization of atomic plasma)
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Temperature [MeV]
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