Leiter-3 Training Power Pointx

Published by Stoelting Co.
Presented by Katy Genseke, Psy.D.
The original Leiter was published by Russell Leiter
in 1940, although he began work on it in 1927.
It is a nonverbal Intelligence Test which has been
widely used on populations of the deaf, hard of
hearing, mentally handicapped, autistic, ESL,
speech and language deficits, motor-involved,
brain injured, and intellectually superior.
◦ The Leiter is a measure of intelligence with fair,
cross-cultural applicability.
◦ The original publication of the Leiter consisted of
68 subtests for examinees 2-18 years of age.
 The 1948 Edition of the Leiter, published by Stoelting,
represents Dr. Leiter’s last revision of his performance
The Leiter-R revision was standardized nationally
on over 2,000 children and adolescents and
expanded the age range to 20 years, 11 months. It
was authored by Dr. Gale Roid and Dr. Lucy Miller.
The Leiter-R has been widely recognized as one of
the best nonverbal cognitive assessments.
Examiner feedback from this version did impact the
redesign of the Leiter-3.
◦ The newly published Leiter 3 was also authored
by Dr.s Roid and Miller, and has new updates and
changes. Standardized on 1,603 nationally
stratified individuals.
 The test is more streamlined, with less subtests
required to gain the nonverbal IQ, and also new
subtests for the Attention Divided and a
neuropsych screener.
 It also went back to the block and frame design
of the original Leiter.
 Standardized on :
Significant Communication Disorders,
Cognitive Delay
Learning Disability
Hearing Impaired
Motor Impaired
Various adult brain disorders, including Dementia,
Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s
 Definition of Intellectual Ability on Leiter-3
 Operational and empirical rather than theoretical and is
the general ability to perform complex nonverbal
mental manipulations related to conceptualization,
inductive reasoning and visualization.
 Included are spatial perception, nonverbal problem
solving, attention to visual detail, classification of
visual stimuli, and the relationships between and
among stimuli.
 Memory and attention are not included in the general
intelligence model, although to some extent, attention
and memory can be thought of as substrates that are
foundational to all test-taking performance.
4 Total Subtests required to calculate the
Nonverbal IQ.
A 5th subtest is included, as a substitute, in
case one of the four are spoiled.
2 Subtests required to calculate the
Nonverbal Memory.
2 Total Subtests required to calculate the
Processing Speed.
1 Nonverbal neuropsychological screener.
Subtest1: Figure Ground (FG)
Subtest 2: Form Completion (FC)
Subtest 3: Classification/Analogies (CA)
Sequential Order (SO)
Visual Patterns (VP)
Excellent reliability coefficients on certain
subtests are the basis of the decision to retain
the main subtest (FG, FC, CA, SO) in the Leiter-3.
The authors of the Leiter-3 felt strongly that the
new edition should be shorter and require less
test-administration time than the full battery of
the Leiter-R.
For this reason, and because of lower
psychometric characteristics, Leiter-R subtests
such as Picture Context, Paper Folding, and
Figure Rotation were not continued into the
Age Group
Task of basic visual interference, similar to a visual recognition task, but
compounded by distractions and enhancements.
Performance on this task was associated with visual closure and correlated with
freedom from distractibility.
Performance on this task is related to the cognitive flexibility of the individual, since
he/she must shift attention between a discrete figure and a complex background.
It also requires the individual have adequate visual scanning skills and an effective
search strategy.
It requires good inhibition, as impulsivity will result in randomly pointing to similar
shapes rather than focusing on the detail embedded in the figures.
It does require short term visual memory, as well, as the individual must hold on to
the mental image on the card while searching for it in the embedded figure on the
easel picture.
This subtest lends itself to clinical qualitative observations of process such as
perceptual bias to one side of the page, misidentification of objects, perseveration,
and noting only the most prominent objects.
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 2
Start Ages 6-10
Teaching Item 3
Start Ages 11-75+
Find 3 of the same figure.
Find one of each of the 3 figures
 This subtest requires organization of disarranged or
fragmented pieces. In addition, it entails flexibility as
the individual must refer back and forth between parts
and the “whole” to arrive at a solution, a process that is
mostly deductive.
 Working memory permits the individual to hold both
the stimuli and possible responses in mind
simultaneously, as the images are constructed and
deconstructed. Many of the harder items also have and
underlying mental rotation component.
 This subtest requires perceptual scanning, recognition,
and the ability to perceive fragmented percepts as
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 2
Still Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 3
Start Ages 6-10
Teaching Item 4
Teach All Ages
Start Point for Ages 11-75+
 This subtest evaluates the individual’s ability to shift
concepts as well as to use them.
 After sorting items, this subtest merges into functional
classification where objects which “belong together”
because of usage rather than size, shape, or color are
 The relationships are induced from concepts, or
elements of the pictures.
 The individual must perceive the element in question,
attach meaning to the element, and conceptualize what
the relevant features are that the stimuli picture on the
easel shares with the response on only one of the blocks.
This subtest consists of both representational and nonrepresentational reasoning problems which require
abstract positional relationships.
 CA measures the ability of the individual to generate rules
out of partial information, and inductively hypothesize
what piece would complete the whole pattern.
 Individuals who are impulsive tend to perform poorly on
this subtest because they respond without scanning all
possible response blocks, and may focus on the first
element they see in common without taking time to
analyze the conceptual similarities between elements.
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 2
Still Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 3
Start Ages 6-10
Teaching Item 4
Start Ages 11-75+
 This subtest requires nonverbal reasoning ability with a
focus on rule generation related to problems of
seriation or sequential information.
 The individual must understand the relationship
between stimuli in order to find the missing elements
at the end or in the middle of the series.
 On this subtest, the “whole” is the final pattern which is
induced from multiple stimuli.
Teaching Trial 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 2
Teaching for Ages 3-10
Start Ages 6-10
Teaching Item 3
Start Ages 11-75+
 At the youngest age, this subtest evaluates the
individual’s basic ability to match visuo-perceptual stimuli
with no memory component.
 This has been described as perceptual acuity, measuring
visual discrimination and awareness of spatial orientation.
 At the youngest age levels, the task is simple, with
matching by color or shape and large features being
 As the task progresses, attention to detail is required, as
the matching dimensions become smaller and less
 This task requires the ability to scan, and make visual
comparisons between figures.
 It also requires basic visualization processes, but also
necessitates patience and freedom from impulsivity on the
part of the individual, as he/she must check different
stimuli against the model as items increase in complexity.
 For individuals 6-75+, this subtest requires an ability
to combine deductive reasoning with an ability for
conceptual sequencing in symbol patterns.
 It requires rule generation as the individual develops
hypotheses from the existing stimuli in the pattern.
 This part of the subtest is similar to cognitive tests of
fluid reasoning.
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Visual Patterns
Teaching Item 2
Start Ages 6-75+
Consists of 5 subtests
2 Subtests for Nonverbal Memory
2 Subtests for Processing Speed
1 Nonverbal Neuropsychological Screener
Subtests 6: Attention Sustained
Subtest 7: Forward Memory
Subtest 8: Attention Divided
Subtest 9: Reverse Memory
Subtest 10: Nonverbal Stroop
 This subtest consists of a cancellation task which
measures visual prolonged attention, requiring good
visual scanning and motoric inhibition on a rapid
repetitive motor task (crossing out stimuli).
 This subtest requires attention and selectivity during an
easy task, which does not require new cognitive
 The score which best discriminates individuals
diagnosed with ADHD from individuals without
attentional deficits is the ERROR score of this subtest.
Attention Sustained can be found in the
Response Booklet
Teaching Trials Ages 3-5
Ages 3-4, only administer the first 2 items.
Age 5, administer all 4 items.
Teaching Trials for Ages 6-75+
 This subtest measures sequential memory span and
requires sustained attention and an organized
processing style.
 In addition to remembering the sequence of stimuli,
the individual must also inhibit the previous sequential
information which may be stored.
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Item 2 and 3
Continue to teach to ages 3-5 on items FM-2A and FM-2B
Teaching Item 4 and 5
Start Ages 6-10
Continue to teach on both Items FM-3A and FM-3B
Teaching Item 6, 7, and 8
Start Ages 11-75+
Continue to teach on items FM-5A, FM-5B, and FM-5C
 This subtest measures the ability of the individual to
hold in active memory two or more ideas
simultaneously, and requires the individual to attend to
more than one line of information at a time.
 The task in Attention Divided was devised to combine
two simple conditions and only achieves complexity
when both tasks must be attended to simultaneously.
 Flexibility, organization, inhibition, and shifting can all
be evaluated during this activity.
 This subtest measures memory span for pictures in
reverse order. If individuals rely heavily on concrete
thinking or become confused easily, they may have
difficulty switching tasks from Forward Memory.
 Reverse Memory is a complex activity requiring the
individual to store and juggle information using mental
effort that requires good working memory.
Teaching Item 1
Start Ages 3-5
Teaching Items 2 and 3
Start Ages 6-75+
Teach on both RM-3A and RM-3B
 This test was designed to measure “Stroop Interference
Effect”- the difference between two tasks where one
task presents two stimuli with the same appearance
(congruent) and the second task presents the same
stimulus with a distracting (incongruent) stimulus.
 The ability to inhibit responses to the distraction
stimuli, and thus reduce cognitive interference, is a
valuable skill in school, work, and life.
 Low scores indicate that the individual is unusual in
overcoming cognitive interference in this type of
physical marking and color discrimination.
 A very high score indicates that the individual is greatly
affected by distracting stimuli, has a tendency to lack
the ability to inhibit marking of the wrongly-matched
colors, and generally is higher in cognitive interference.
The Nonverbal Stroop can be found in the
Response Booklet
Color Congruent Trial
Color Incongruent Trial
 The Examiner Rating Scale is composed of 8
 Attention- Concentration, focus, staying on task, not
distracted by noises, persistent-paying attention to
detail during testing.
 Organization/Impulse Control- Plans before beginning
tasks, organizes, inhibits inappropriate actions that
delay task completion, not touching test materials
unnecessarily, independent task completion.
 Activity Level- Maintains high activity level (on task)
during testing and does not fidget, gaze elsewhere too
much, or gets bored and slows down.
 Sociability- Interacts positively with examiner, does not
withdraw or show hostility or defiance, not careless
with materials.
 Energy and Feelings- Shows pleasure, energy instead of
fatigue, confidence, cheerfulness or neutral responses,
not overly sad or lethargic.
 Regulation- No bizarre responses or unrelated ideas
and spoken comments, not overly aroused or overreactive, even mood, no large mood swings, no
unregulated distracting behaviors (picking, twisting,
fidgeting excessively).
 Anxiety- Assured, not worried, composed not
overwhelmed, calm not agitated.
 Sensory Reaction- Normal reactions to outside noises,
not distracted by particular stimuli, adapts to
transitions between tasks, regulated arousal level in
 Cognitive/Social
 All skills in this composite relate to the motivational and
interpersonal skills needed to be successful in work
settings, as well as test-performance skills.
 The individual who scores at a high level on this composite
is probably considered hard-working, attentive, focused,
high energy, likable, conscientious, organized, and mature
for his or her age.
 Emotions/Regulations
 This scale measures adaptability, emotional stability, and
regulations (can one regulate their emotional reaction to
stimulation or demanding situations)?
Attention Sustained Total Errors:
◦ Because individuals with Attention Deficit or
Learning Disorders often have an atypical number
of errors, look for cases where the AS Errors scaled
score exceeds the scaled score for the AS Total
profile score 5 points or more.
◦ Also consider if the AS Error score is 7 or below and
the AS Total score is 10 or higher.
◦ The particular balance of scaled scores may be
diagnostic of some aspects of attention processes,
or fundamental skills, such as visual scanning and
pencil grip.
Attention Divided Correct Score
◦ Atypical individuals (those with ADHD, Autism, TBI,
or LD) do more poorly on the disc sorting, relative
to the card slapping, or show more errors.
◦ Extremely low scaled scores (those below 7, or
especially below 5) on the AD could signal the
presence of a severe inability to divide attention, or
poor executive function ability.
◦ The AD Correct score should not be used as a
single indicator of ADHD or LD, but rather, should
be used as part of a thorough investigation of all
evidence for possible disability.
Attention Divided Incorrect Score
◦ Extremely low scaled scores on the AD Incorrect
score (below 7) could signal the presence of a
severe inability to divide attention; poor motor
ability or coordination; slowness of response;
tendency to complete tasks in a quick but
inaccurate way, or poor executive function ability.
◦ Even more than the AD Correct score, the AD
Incorrect score is more evidence for a response
pattern similar to atypical respondants.
Nonverbal Stroop Congruent Incorrect
This is also an indicator of atypical responding.
Any score below 7 signals need for an investigation.
Make sure the participate understood the task.
If a low score appears valid, the question arises as
to what type of difficulty or deficit this individual is
reflecting in his/her performance.
◦ Lack of motor coordination? A visual problem? Lack
of quick responding? Deficit in executive
Nonverbal Stroop Incongruent Incorrect
◦ Low scores (7 or below) are an indicator of atypical
◦ The same questions need to be examined- Is this
poor motor coordination? Lack of quick responding?
Deficit in executive functioning? Inability to inhibit
responses to non-matching stimuli?
For individuals who function at a low level of
ability and any individual who is expected to
be retested on the Leiter-3, the Growth
Scores provide an excellent source of
The Growth Scores were designed using the
Item Response Theory (IRT) so that small
increments of growth could be measured.
The Leiter-3 was validated with:
◦ WJ-III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (correlations of
different subtests ranged from .77 to .92, with Fluid
Reasoning being the highest correlated).
◦ WISC-IV Perceptual Reasoning Index (nearly equal
at 87.6 and 87.3 in scaled scores) and Processing
Speed (scaled scores were 100 and 97.6,
◦ Stanford Binet-5th Edition (correlate at .85).
◦ Leiter-R (a conversion table of scores provided in
manual, as the Leiter-3 scores higher due to Flynn
Authored by Dr. Susan Mayes
Published in 2012
The Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder
(CASD) offers a quick and valid means of
screening for and diagnosing children with
autism across the entire autism spectrum,
regardless of age, IQ, or autism severity.
The CASD is for children 1 to 16 years of age
and is completed and scored by clinicians or
parents in 15 minutes.
The 30 CASD symptoms are scored as
present or absent.
Research with the CASD shows that children
with both high functioning autism (HFA) and
low functioning autism (LFA) earn CASD total
scores at or above the autism cutoff of 15.
In contrast, children with typical
development, mental retardation, attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder, language
disorder, learning disability, cerebral palsy,
traumatic brain injury, hearing impairment,
anxiety disorder, depression, and
oppositional-defiant disorder score below 15
on the CASD.
The CASD is normed and standardized on
2,469 children with autism, other clinical
disorders, and typical development.
In the national standardization sample, the
CASD differentiated children with and without
autism with 99.5% accuracy.
The CASD is the only diagnostic instrument
designed to evaluate a single spectrum, in
contrast to other instruments that assess
pervasive developmental disorder subtypes.
Each of the proposed DSM-5 criteria for
autism spectrum disorder corresponds to
symptoms on the CASD.
Symptom Score
Autism Range
7 or below
Borderline Range
(8 or higher is at risk
and needs further
Normal Range

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