Something Fishy this Way Comes: The How and Why of Garum Lori Kissell Garum • • • • • What is it? How is it made? Where/how is it traded? How is it used? Modern equivalents/descendants? Garum – what is it? • OLD: garum, -i (n) a highly esteemed fish sauce, prepared originally from the garos (unknown fish) but later chiefly from the scomber or mackerel Garum – what is it? • OLD: liquamen, -inis (n) [liquo + -men] a liquid fluid; (Spec., prob.) fish-sauce (garum) • OLD: muria, -ae (f) also muries, -ei [dub] – brine used for pickling Garum – what is it? • OLD: muriaticus, -a, -um – soaked in brine, pickled, (Neut. Pl as sb) pickled fish Garum – what is it? • • • • • • • • Cited by everyone! Varro Horace Celsius Seneca Petronius Pliny the Elder Sextus Pompeius Festus • • • • • • • • Martial Ulpius Columella Cato Persius Quintilian Fabius Pictor CIL 15.4709 & 4.2592 Garum – how is it made? • Traditional: fish + sunshine + time = garum • Whole fish or offal only • Fatty fish (oily) preferred • Outdoors, then store in cool, dry place Garum – how is it made? • Non-traditional: boil it first • To strain or not strain? • Store in fridge Garum – how is it made? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPX8dpKG4 8M in which a German foodie tries his hand at garum garum.umwblogs.org is a student project conducted over three months which documents with reports and pictures the beginnings of the liquefaction process Garum – how is it made? • Recipes vary – all include fish and salt, but additional flavorings vary widely • Herbs, vinegar, honey, fish used all change the flavor • Favorite fish? Mackerel, sardines, anchovies, tunny, tuna or various combinations • Herbs? Parsley, garlic, pepper or local variations Garum – how is it made? • • • • Leave in sun one to three months, strain, store Edible, but pungent, in one year Five years – not so bad Ten years – really nice! Garum –where/ how is it traded? • • • • Must have: Source of Fish Mediterranean not rich in fish Must have: Good water supply Famous locations – Pompeii, Carthage, Lusitania, Baetican Spain, Clazomenae, Leptis Magna, Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Brittany, Black Sea region Garum – where/how is it traded? • Transported in amphorae • Distinctive styles can source the garum • Barrels used, but little evidence remains Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, 129 B.C. to 13 A.D. Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D. Dressel 3: Roman wine amphora, 28 to 146 A.D. Dressel 4: Roman wine amphora, 4 B.C. to 24 A.D. Dressel 5: Roman wine amphora, 12 B.C.. - holotype Dressel 6: Roman wine amphora, 36 A.D.- holotype Dressel 7,8,9,10,11: betic amphoras for salted fish (Hispanic) Dressel 8: 1st front century J.C. Dressel 12: betic amphora for salted fish (Andalusia) Dressel 13,14,15: betic amphoras for salted fish Dressel 20: oil amphora, betic, 2nd-3rd century A.D. Dressel 26,27: 3rd century A.D. and later Garum – where/how is it traded? • Used locally, and traded throughout empire • Specialized in garum trade, or shipped with other goods (wine, oil, grain) Garum –where/ how is it traded? • Aulus Umbricius Scaurus, father and son, Pompeii • Major commodity in Pompeii, only one dedicated shop found (so far.) Garum – how is it used? • Ubiquitous • Condiment Garum – how is it used? • Ingredient Garum – how is it used? • Cosmetics – remove unwanted hair and freckles Garum – how is it used? • Medicine – dog bites, dysentery, ulcers, chronic diarrhea and constipation! Garum – modern? • Umami Garum – modern? • Asian/Pacific fish sauces • e.g. Nuoc Mam, Nam Pla Garum – modern? • Worcestershire sauce • Lea & Perrins includes anchovy base!