Garum Presentation

Report
Something Fishy this Way
Comes: The How and Why of
Garum
Lori Kissell
Garum
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What is it?
How is it made?
Where/how is it traded?
How is it used?
Modern equivalents/descendants?
Garum – what is it?
• OLD: garum, -i (n) a highly esteemed fish
sauce, prepared originally from the garos
(unknown fish) but later chiefly from the
scomber or mackerel
Garum – what is it?
• OLD: liquamen, -inis (n) [liquo + -men] a liquid
fluid; (Spec., prob.) fish-sauce (garum)
• OLD: muria, -ae (f) also muries, -ei [dub] –
brine used for pickling
Garum – what is it?
• OLD: muriaticus, -a, -um – soaked in brine,
pickled, (Neut. Pl as sb) pickled fish
Garum – what is it?
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Cited by everyone!
Varro
Horace
Celsius
Seneca
Petronius
Pliny the Elder
Sextus Pompeius Festus
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Martial
Ulpius
Columella
Cato
Persius
Quintilian
Fabius Pictor
CIL 15.4709 & 4.2592
Garum – how is it made?
• Traditional: fish + sunshine + time = garum
• Whole fish or offal only
• Fatty fish (oily) preferred
• Outdoors, then store in cool, dry place
Garum – how is it made?
• Non-traditional: boil it first
• To strain or not strain?
• Store in fridge
Garum – how is it made?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPX8dpKG4
8M in which a German foodie tries his hand at
garum
garum.umwblogs.org is a student project
conducted over three months which documents
with reports and pictures the beginnings of the
liquefaction process
Garum – how is it made?
• Recipes vary – all include fish and salt, but
additional flavorings vary widely
• Herbs, vinegar, honey, fish used all change the
flavor
• Favorite fish? Mackerel, sardines, anchovies,
tunny, tuna or various combinations
• Herbs? Parsley, garlic, pepper or local
variations
Garum – how is it made?
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Leave in sun one to three months, strain, store
Edible, but pungent, in one year
Five years – not so bad
Ten years – really nice!
Garum –where/ how is it traded?
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Must have: Source of Fish
Mediterranean not rich in fish
Must have: Good water supply
Famous locations – Pompeii, Carthage,
Lusitania, Baetican Spain, Clazomenae, Leptis
Magna, Atlantic coasts of Morocco and
Brittany, Black Sea region
Garum – where/how is it traded?
• Transported in amphorae
• Distinctive styles can source the garum
• Barrels used, but little evidence remains
Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras
Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, 129 B.C. to 13 A.D.
Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.
Dressel 3: Roman wine amphora, 28 to 146 A.D.
Dressel 4: Roman wine amphora, 4 B.C. to 24 A.D.
Dressel 5: Roman wine amphora, 12 B.C.. - holotype
Dressel 6: Roman wine amphora, 36 A.D.- holotype
Dressel 7,8,9,10,11: betic amphoras for salted fish
(Hispanic)
Dressel 8: 1st front century J.C.
Dressel 12: betic amphora for salted fish (Andalusia)
Dressel 13,14,15: betic amphoras for salted fish
Dressel 20: oil amphora, betic, 2nd-3rd century A.D.
Dressel 26,27: 3rd century A.D. and later
Garum – where/how is it traded?
• Used locally, and traded throughout empire
• Specialized in garum trade, or shipped with
other goods (wine, oil, grain)
Garum –where/ how is it traded?
• Aulus Umbricius Scaurus, father and son,
Pompeii
• Major commodity in Pompeii, only one
dedicated shop found (so far.)
Garum – how is it used?
• Ubiquitous
• Condiment
Garum – how is it used?
• Ingredient
Garum – how is it used?
• Cosmetics – remove unwanted hair and
freckles
Garum – how is it used?
• Medicine – dog bites, dysentery, ulcers,
chronic diarrhea and constipation!
Garum – modern?
• Umami
Garum – modern?
• Asian/Pacific fish sauces
• e.g. Nuoc Mam, Nam Pla
Garum – modern?
• Worcestershire sauce
• Lea & Perrins includes anchovy base!

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