LECTURE 01_Greece

Report
UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME
LECTURE 1
OBJECTIVES


CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and
government impacted Classical Greece

Objective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and
government that developed in the city-states.

Objective 3.2: Summarize the causes and results of the Persian &
Peloponnesian Wars.

Objective 3.3: Describe Greek culture through art, religion,
literature, architecture, drama, and philosophy.

Objective 3.4: Summarize the impact of Alexander’s conquests
and the resulting Hellenistic Culture.
THEME: The Greek culture will have a significant
impact and influence on many other world cultures.
Classical Greece
2000 B.C.–300 B.C.
SECTION 1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
SECTION 2 Warring City-States
SECTION 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
SECTION 4 Alexander’s Empire
SECTION 5 The Spread of the Hellenistic
Culture
CULTURES OF THE
MOUNTAINS
AND THE SEA
CHAPTER 5 SECTION 1
The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction
of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.
Greece
Greece is known for its classical
civilization (500 to 300 BC).


Classical Greek
culture, particularly
that of Athens, is
famed for its beautiful
arts, architecture,
philosophy, theater,
Olympic games, and
for creating the first
democracy.
Classical Greece is
considered the
principal source of
Western Civilization.
Civilization eventually
came to Europe.
The first civilizations to
develop in Europe were
extensions of the early
civilizations of
Mesopotamia and
Egypt.
 Europe’s earliest major
culture was the Minoan
civilization of Crete, the
largest of the Greek
islands.
 The Minoan culture was
strongly influenced by
Egypt.

GEOGRAPHY SHAPES LIFE




Ancient Greece

Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live

Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands
The Sea

The sea shapes Greek civilization

Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade
The Land

Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions

Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies
The Climate

Moderate climate promotes outdoor life

Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside
Greece is a mountainous
and rocky peninsula.

Greece has little good
farmland, but its long
irregular coastline
provided fine harbors.

Many Greeks turned to
the sea to make a living
by fishing and trading.

Greeks established
colonies and
dominated trade in the
Mediterranean and
Black Seas.
WHAT DID ISOLATION CREATE??????
Isolation molded Greek
culture.


Greek communities
isolated by mountains
developed into
independent city-states
that often fought with one
another.
The leading city-states
were Sparta with its strong
military government and
Athens, the present-day
capital of Greece.
Mycenaean Civilization
Develops


Origins

Mycenaeans — (the first Greeks) Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek
mainland in 2000 B.C.

Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae

Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C.
Contact with Minoans


After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture
The Trojan War

Trojan War — fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C.

Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found
DORIAN DECLINE

Dorians Replace Mycenaeans
 Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C.
 Dorians — group who replaced the Mycenaeans in Greece


•
2nd Greek Civilization
•
possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece
Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written
records
Epics of Homer
 Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind
storyteller
 Epic—a narrative poem about heroic deeds
 Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic
ideal
The Iliad describes
the Trojan War.
In the Trojan War most of
Greece united to attack
the city-state of Troy,
located in Asia Minor.
 The war lasted for years
because Troy was
surrounded by strong stone
walls.
 At last the Greeks used a
large, hollow, wooden
horse with soldiers hidden
inside to defeat the
defenders of the city of
Troy.

The Odyssey tells of the travels
of the Greek hero Odysseus.


He and his men had
to overcome many
obstacles during
their 10-year
voyage home from
the war in Troy.
Eventually Odysseus
reaches his home in
Ithaca and regains
his lost home, his
son, his wife, and his
kingdom.
In both poems, reason and
wisdom were better than
 The heroes of Greek
strength.

myths such as the
Iliad and the Odyssey
served as models of
excellence for the
ancient Greeks.
Homer’s poems were
later the inspiration for
a great outpouring of
literature during the
Greek classical age.
GREEK MYTHS



Greeks develop myths—traditional stories about gods

The Greeks had a polytheistic religion; their gods lived on Mount Olympus.

Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths

Greeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their gods
Popular Greek Gods

Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera

Zeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities

Ares: God of War
Greek Monsters

Centaurs: half-horse; half-human; lawless aggressive creatures

Cerberus: hounds of Hades

Cyclops: giant one-eyed semi gods
GREEK GODS

http://www.history.com/topics/ancientgreece/videos#greek-gods
WARRING
CITY-STATES
CHAPTER 5 SECTION 2
The growth of city-states in Greece leads to the
development of many different political systems
THE CITY-STATE


By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal
government

A polis is a city and its surrounding villages

50 to 500 square miles

Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000
Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a
fortified hilltop

http://www.history.com/topics/ancientgreece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis
The Greeks established a new
kind of society with the polis.


The polis was an
association of free
male citizens who
served as the soldiers
who defended their
city-state from attack,
and they managed
the government.
The polis chose
leaders to govern the
city-state for a limited
period of time, often
a year.
EARLY GREEK POLITICS


Greek Political Structures

City-states have different forms of government

Many were ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy
Tyrants Seize Power

Rulers and common people clash in many city-states

Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common
people

They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people
ATHENS BUILDS A
DEMOCRACY


Building Democracy

About 621 B.C., democracy — rule by the people — develops in
Athens

This slowly develops over time from the influence of Draco, Solon, and
Cleisthenes

Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens
Athenian Education

Schooling only for sons of wealthy families

Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household
SPARTA BUILDS A MILITARY STATE


Isolated from much of Greece, Around 725 B.C., Sparta
conquers Messenia

Messenians become helots—peasants forced to farm the land

Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state
SPARTAN LIFE

Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom

Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece

Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60

Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives

Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else
THE PERSIAN WARS


A New Kind of Army Emerges

Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper

Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes

Phalanx —feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields
Battle at Marathon

Persian Wars — between Greece and Persian Empire

Persian army, led by Darius the great attacks Athens


defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.
Pheidippides Brings News

Runner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory
The Persians tried again to
invade Greece in 480 BC.

Thermopylae and Salamis

In 480 B.C., Persians launch
new invasion of Greece

Greeks are divided; many
stay neutral or side with
Persians

Greek forces hold
Thermopylae (300) for three
days before retreating
SALAMIS: Xerxes would not get
the victory he planned for.

The people of Athens fled to the nearby island of Salamis
after the Persians conquered and burned Athens.


The Persian king, Xerxes, had his throne placed on a hill where he
could watch his fleet of a thousand large warships destroy the much
smaller Greek fleet.
Instead, Xerxes looked on in horror as the Greeks lured his
navy into a narrow strait where the smaller Greek ships
outmaneuvered and rammed the larger Persian ships,
sinking most of the Persian fleet.

After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes went home to Persia, and the
Persian Wars soon ended.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE
PERSIAN WARS

Consequences of the Persian Wars
o
New self-confidence in Greece due to victory
o
Athens emerges as leader of Delian League

City-States combine to keep fighting the Persians
o
Athens controls the league by using force against
opponents
o
League members essentially become provinces of
Athenian empire
 Stage
is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens

similar documents