A brief talk on Famous Italian Women Scientists

Report
www.stats4buz.com
A brief talk on Famous
Italian Women Scientists
By Dr Vincent MICALI, PhD (UFS)
[email protected]
http://www.stats4buz.com/
Copyright  2010 by Stats4Buz
No part of this presentation may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission
of the author.
Content

Introduction:
 Teaching Institutions
 Oldest University
 University of Bologna
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Famous Italian Women Scientists
13th Century
17th Century
18th Century
20th and 21st Centuries
Introduction

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Medicine as Science
Science
Physics
Chemistry
Mathematics
Statistics
Philosophy
Theology
Languages
Circa 1309
Universita’

Deriva dal Latino: Universitas Magistrorum et
Scholarium, significa: “Comunita’ di Maestri e Scolari”

Definition: institution of higher education and research,
which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A
university is a corporation that provides both
undergraduate and postgraduate education.

Early History:

Non-degree grants (No longer -Ops):

Yu (China): 2257-2208 BC

Takshashila (Pakistan): 7th C BC
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Nalanda (India): 5th C BC
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Plato Academos: 387 BC
Circa 1350
OLDEST University
If it is meant just as a higher educational operational
Institution, then:

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“Della descrittione
dell’Africa et delle
cose notabili cheiui
sono”, per Giovan
Lioni Africano
nel 1550


Leo Africanus
Sebastiano del
Piombo, circa
1520
University of Salerno (based on Velia’s Medical College)
founded in Greek and Roman times
University of Magnaura (Constantinople, now Istanbul) by the
regent Bardas of Emperor Michael III, founded in 849
University of Al-Karaouine (Faz- Maroc) founded by Fatima
al-Fihri in 859
University of Al-Azhar (Cairo-Egypt) founded circa 969
According to definition (must also
be prior to 1500) the oldest
Occidental University goes to:

University of Bologna founded in
1088
http://www.unibo.it/Portale/Ateneo/La+nostra+storia/NoveSecoli.htm
Sito: Unibo
Universita’ Italiane (ante 1500)
UNIVERSITA'
Bologna
Modena
Padova
Federico II (Napoli)
Siena
La Sapienza (Roma)
Perugia
Firenze
Pisa
Pavia
Ferrara
Torino
Catania
Genova
Data fondata
1088
1175
1222
1224
1240
1303
1308
1321
1343
1361
1391
1404
1434
1481
Universita’ di Bologna
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
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Dieci Collegi
Archivi di Storia Universitaria ricca: prime
Borse di Studio, decreti , resi-conti, cause e
processi
Available
printouts
Ancarano
Sinibaldi
Poeti
Jacobs
Montalto
Ferrero
Comelli
Ungaro
Illirico
Panolini
Palantieri
Archvio
Storico
Ipazia (Hypatia) Di ALESSANDRIA

Circa 370 Alexandria, Egypt
Lapidated 415, Alexandria

First Woman recognised as a Mathematician for
making substantial contributions to the science

The Marquise Diodata Saluzzo Roero, member of Accademia
Torinese delle Scienze e dell'Arcadia, in her discourse: Ipazia, ossia
delle filosofe (1827) presented Hypatia as a Christian martyr:
"Languida rosa sul reciso stelo/ Nel sangue immersa la vergin giacea/
Avvolta a mezzo nel suo bianco velo/ Soavissimamente sorridea/
Condonatrice de l'altrui delitto/ Mentre il gran segno redentor stringea".
Bettisia Gozzadini

1209 (Bologna) – Nov 1261

First Woman in Europe to hold a post at a
University
Abella SALERNITANA (a.k.a. di SALERNO)


14th Century physician who taught at the Salerno
School of Medecine
Linked with Rebecca GUARNA
Rebecca GUARNA & Dorotea BOCCHI
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Early 1300 - Late 1300
GUARNA Teaches Medecine at the Salerno
School of Medecine (researches fever,
embryology,…) also regarded as one of the first
distinguished herbalists
BOCCHI is appointed to the chair of Medecine
at the University of Bologna in 1390 which she
will hold for 40 years
From 1273 to 1410 there are 24 women doctors
in Naples
Elena Lucrezia CORNARO PISCOPIA

5 June 1646 (Venezia) – 26 July 1684 (Padova)

First Woman in the World to earn a PhD
degree
Laura Maria Caterina BASSI
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31 Oct. 1711 (Bologna) - 20 Feb. 1778
First Woman to teach sciences at a
University College in Europe
Laura Maria Caterina BASSI

Donna BASSI’s Life
G Veratti
Card. P Lambertini
8
G Tacconi
Instituto delle Scienze
25 Benedettini
Laura Maria Caterina BASSI

Crater on Venus named after her
Maria Gaetana AGNESI


16 May 1718 (Milano) - 9 Jan. 1799
First Woman Mathematician of importance
since Hypatia (5th century AD)
Maria Gaetana AGNESI

Diploma di Laurea (Bologna)
Maria Gaetana AGNESI

Most valuable Work (Milano 1748)
Maria Gaetana AGNESI

Witch of Agnesi: y = (8.a3)/(x2 + 4a2)
3
2
1
0
-15
-10
-5
0
-1
5
10
15
y1
y3
y5
y6
-2
-3
-4
-5
Maria Gaetana AGNESI

Crater on Venus named after her
Maria MONTESSORI
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31 Aug 1870 (Chiaravalle) - 6 May 1952
Noordwijk aan Zee
Elena FREDA

25 Mar 1890 (Roma) - 25 Nov 1978
Elena FREDA

Her most prestigious work
Dottoresse Moderne Famose
(extract)
Dottoresse in medicina: Augusta Algranati, Gemma
Barzilai, Elena Basileschi, Luisa Levi, Bianca
Morpurgo, Luciana Nissim Momigliano, Eugenia
Sacerdote, Lucia Servadio, Maria Zamorani
Dottoresse in matematica: Emma Castelnuovo,
Emma Senigaglia
Dottoressa in fisica: Nella Mortara
Dottoresse in biologia: Gina Castelnuovo, Anna Foà
Dottoressa in botanica: Piera Scaramella
Dottoresse in chimica: Vanda Maestro, Nerina Vita
Dottoresse in farmacologia: Maria Luisa Basileschi,
Angelina Levi
Dottoressa in entomologia: Enrica Calabresi
Dottoressa in mineralogia: Maria Piazza
Rita LEVI-MONTALCINI
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22 Apr 1909 (Torino) –
she’s c. 102 !
Nobel Prize Winner in Medicine (1986)
Senator for Life (2001)
Founder Member of : “IDIS Foundation –
Sciences City”; EBRI (Euro Brain Research Inst.)
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Storia in Network, www.storiain.net
Light-Science, www.lightscience.com
Kirstin Olsen, “Chronology of Women’s
History”, Greenwood Press, 1994
Internet: Wikipedia
Universita’ di Bologna: Nove Secoli di
Storia (web site)
Simili Raffaella, “Scienziate Italiane Ebree
(1938-1945)”, Pendragon, 2010
Libreria delle Donne, via Fiesolana 2B,
spalle del Duomo, Firenze.

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