Chapter 6: The Rise of Ancient Greece The Parthenon in Athens Section 1: The Rise of Greek Civilization Temple of Didyma Where is Greece? Greece’s Geographic Setting Greece is made up of peninsulas Peninsula: an area of land surrounded by water on three sides Greece made up of mountains Greek communities split up, had their own land, customs, and beliefs on how to live Communities fought one another despite sharing a heritage (they had the same ancestors), language, and religion Discovery Streaming: Geography of Greece Based on Greece’s geography?, why was it difficult for Greek communities to be united? Greek Beginnings – Minoan Civilization Minoans lived on island of Crete from 3000 BC – 1100 BC Traded with mainland Greece as well as islands Knossos – main city, origin of grand architecture and art 1400s BC – Knossos destroyed (likely by Mycenaeans), Minoans began decline Earned power through trade Discovery Streaming: Crete The Mycenaeans Mainland Greece – home of Mycenaean culture Height of power around 1400 BC Earned power through conquest Discovery Streaming Video: Mycenae Connections to Current Events What advantages does a country have if they trade with other countries? The US is involved in a lot of international trade. What is one country that you think trades a lot with America? (Hint: think of tags on products that say “made in ________”) The Trojan War Mythical war between Greece and city of Troy (in Turkey) There WERE actual conflicts between Greece and Troy, but the details of the war were exaggerated Homer’s epic poems, The Iliad and The Odyssey tell the story of the Trojan war According to legend, Greeks offered the Trojans a giant wooden horse as a peace offering Greek warriors hid inside the horse and climbed out once the horse was wheeled into Troy, destroyed Troy In reality, Troy was destroyed by fire in 1200s BC, perhaps by Greek invaders The Dark Ages of Greece After Trojan War, Greek civilization collapsed Poverty Trading was reduced Very little writing or art Greece’s Dark Ages: early 1100s BC – 750 BC Stories were passed down through word of mouth, not writing People resettled to farms City-States Develop Around 750 BC, city-states began to form City-state: an independent state made up of several villages grouped together There were hundreds of Greek city-states Respond: What are the advantages and disadvantages of having many smaller independent states, as opposed to one large central government? Aristocracy: Nobles Rule/A New Type of Ruler Most city-states ruled by aristocrats – members of rich and powerful families Common Greek citizens wanted their voices to be heard Organized small military groups to overthrow aristocrats Military strength was shifted to merchants and craftsmen Tyrant – a ruler who seizes power by force Supported by middle and working classes Democracy in Greece Some city-states adopted a new form of government Democracy: government where citizens govern themselves Athens was best example of a city-state democracy Solon – Athenian leader whose laws reformed economy and government of Athens Freed anyone who was enslaved for having debts and cancelled debts Allowed any male citizen of Athens aged 18 or older to debate laws Restrictions Only 1 in 5 Athenians was a citizen (had to have Athenian mother and father) Women and non-citizen men did not take part in democracy Discovery Streaming Video: The Democracy of Athens Respond What were the pros and cons of the Greek democracy? Section 2: Religion, Philosophy, and the Arts The Golden Age of Athens Golden Age of Athens: 479 B.C – 431 B.C Athens became rich from trade and from silver mines Tribute – payments made to Athens by allies as a sign of loyalty Pericles – Member of aristocratic family, but supported democracy 460 B.C. – became leader of democratic group Reformed and strengthened democracy City had to pay a salary to officials, so poor citizens could hold public office Construction of Parthenon – temple to honor the goddess Athena The Parthenon Pericles Builds the Parthenon The Wonders of the Acropolis Why do you think Pericles was such a popular ruler? Would you have liked living in Athens under his rule? Ancient Greek Religious Beliefs Twelve Olympians – family of Greek gods and goddesses, each ruling over a different area of human and natural life A few notables: Zeus (ruler of all gods and humanity), Athena (goddess of wisdom and war), Apollo (god of music, poetry), Poseidon (god of earthquakes and ocean) Gods and Goddesses Greeks believed gods were immortal, meaning that they lived forever Zeus ruled all gods from Mount Olympus, Greece’s highest mountain Each city-state honored one of the twelve gods Athena was goddess of Athens Olympic games created to honor Zeus Discovery Streaming: Ancient Greek Gods There is a larger variety of religious beliefs in modern-day America than there were in Ancient Greece. Why do you think that is? What are some examples of buildings in your neighborhood that are used for religious purposes? The Oracles Oracle – sacred site where Greeks believed the gods spoke They would visit the oracles to ask for advice, and answers would come from priests who were thought to be able to interpret answers from gods Most famous oracle is in Delphi, Greece Greek Science and Philosophy Philosopher – a person who believed that people could use powers of the mind and reason to understand natural events Thales – believed water was the basic material of the world Democritus – believed everything was made up of atoms Socrates Socrates spent his days in the marketplace talking to people Socrates wanted people to question their beliefs Questioned traditional justice Socrates brought to trial in 399 BC Accused of dishonoring gods and misleading young people Sentenced to death Plato and Aristotle Plato – one of Socrates’ students Did not trust democracy Believed that society should be made up of three groups: workers, soldiers, and philosopher-rulers Founded the Academy Philosophy school in Athens Aristotle Student at the Academy Believed that reason should guide the pursuit of knowledge Later founded his own school, the Lyceum Socrates urged his students to question and critically examine all around them. For “corrupting the youth” in this way, an Athenian jury sentenced him to death. Why do you think some people believed Socrates corrupted the youth of Athens? How do some people in our society react to radical and different ideas? Give an example. How can you remember the order of the three main philosophers? SPA S – Socrates P – Plato A - Artistotle Visual and Dramatic Arts Greeks used visual arts to honor gods Architecture Sculpture Plays The Parthenon Pericles rebuilt Acropolis area of Athens Most magnificent building: Parthenon Temple to Athena Goddess of war Made of marble 40-foot statue of Athena The Parthenon is the symbol of Athens. Write down examples of buildings or structures that are so famous that they have become the symbol of the city or country in which they are located. Dramas Athenians wrote the first dramas and performed them before crowds Tragedy – a serious story that usually ends in disaster for the main character Comedies 400s BC – poets wrote comedies to make fun of famous citizens and to joke about Greek customs Athens was very liberal – people were accepting of the humor Greek Theater Many City-States, One People People in Athens were very proud of their city Took an active role in their government Spread progressive ideas to enhance their culture While Athens was the most prominent city-state, there were others Every four years, city-states would compete in the Olympic Games against one another First Olympics in 776 B.C. Ancient Olympia and the Olympic Games What role did education and growing wealth play in the development of philosophy and the arts in ancient Greece? Review What made the Golden Age of Athens so “golden” and great?