Areas of Responsibility

Report
URBAN AND HOUSING
ISSUES IN CANADA
DR. DALE ANDERSON
PRESENTATION OVERVIEW
•
•
•
•
•
•
Canada: Context
Government and Shared Responsibilities
Urbanism and Key Urban Issues
General Housing Concepts
Housing in British Columbia
Housing Policy in B.C.
CONTEXT:
HISTORY
• Late 15th century, British and
French colonies on Atlantic
coast
• Eventually, United Kingdom
gained territories
• British North American Act of
1867 – three colonies formed
Dominion of Canada
• More colonies added to the selfgoverning dominion
• 1931 Britain granted Canada full
independence
• 1982 – last ties dissolved
• Aboriginal peoples were living in
these colonies when Canada
formed – still present today
CANADA
TODAY
• 10 provinces
• 3 territories
• 10 million square km
(second largest country by
area)
• 35 million people
• Border shared with United
States (and France)
• Vast majority of population
live within 200 km of USA
• Highly multicultural,
especially major
metropolitan areas
GOVERNMENT
• Democratic constitutional
monarchy
• Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II
• Head of Government: Elected
Prime Minister
• Federal government three
branches
• Executive
• Legislative
• Judicial
• Federal, and provincial /territorial
governments share responsibilities
• Queen has representatives in
Canada
SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES
Federal Government
• Areas of law listed in
the Constitution Act,
1867
• Generally affect the
whole country
• Sources of Revenue:
Income tax, sales tax,
corporate tax
Areas of Responsibility
National defence
Foreign affairs
Employment insurance
Banking
Federal taxes
Post office
Fisheries
Shipping, railways,
telephones and pipelines
• Aboriginal lands and rights
• criminal law
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES
Provincial Government
• Areas of law listed in
the Constitution Act,
1867
• Generally affect
individual provinces
• Sources of Revenue:
Income tax, sales tax,
corporate taxes
Areas of Responsibility
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Education
Health care
Some natural resources
Road regulations
Hospitals
Federal Prisons
Marriage
Property and civil rights
Agriculture and
immigration shared with
federal
SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES
Municipal Government
• “Creatures of the
provinces”
• Powers as granted by
province
• Property taxes
Areas of Responsibility
• Emergency Services
(police, fire,
ambulance)
• Local roads and
infrastructure
• Water, sewer
• Community centres,
libraries, swimming
pools = typically
SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES
First Nations
• Changing status
• Band councils
• Sources of Revenue:
varies – primarily
federal government
Areas of Responsibility
• Changing
• On reserve = federal
responsibility
• Off reserve = provincial
responsibility
URBANISM – OVER TIME
URBANISM TODAY
• About 80% urban
• 10 million in three
metropolitan areas:
• Toronto - 5M
• Montreal - 3.5M
• Vancouver - 2M
OTHER MAJOR URBAN CENTRES
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Metro Area
Pop 2011
Toronto, Ontario
5,583,064
Montreal, Quebec
3,824,221
Vancouver, British Columbia
2,313,328
Ottawa-Gatineau, Ontario and Quebec
1,236,324
Calgary, Alberta
1,214,839
Edmonton, Alberta
1,159,869
Quebec City, Quebec
765,706
Winnipeg, Manitoba
730,018
Hamilton/Burlington, Ontario
721,053
Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Ontario
477,160
London, Ontario
474,786
Saint Catherine’s Niagara, Ontario
392,184
Halifax, Nova Scotia
390,328
Oshawa , Ontario
356,177
Victoria, British Columbia
344,615
TOTAL
19,983,672
URBAN ISSUES
Major Issues
Paradox
• Urban sprawl
• Municipal infrastructure:
maintaining, renewing
and costs of doing so
• Housing: lack,
affordability
• Public transit and
transportation
• Climate change
• Environmental quality
• Immigration
• Very high per capita
income
• High ranking on Human
Development Index
• High results for
education,
government
transparency, civil
liberties, quality of life,
economic freedom
HOUSING IN CANADA
Features
• Market: ownership or
rental
• Social housing – rental
• High homeownership
rates historically (67-70%)
• Homeownership
increasing over past
decades*
• Major changes by federal
government after WWII
Issues
• Affordability
• Rental: Lack of new,
quality of stock
• Past development
patterns and reliance on
cars
• Homeownership vs rental
patterns changing
• Energy and water
efficiency and
sustainability – compact
communities
SHARED
RESPONSIBILITY:
FEDERAL
Affordability
Examples
• Partnering in social housing
• Funding – e.g., early stages of
affordable housing project
• Financial assistance such as
First-time Home Buyers Tax
Credit or Home Buyers Plan
(use funds from retirement
savings)
• Providing mortgage
insurance (<20% down
payment)
• Research on the housing
market via Canada
Mortgage and Housing
Corporation
• Exemptions from capital
gains tax for principal
residence
SHARED
RESPONSIBILITY:
PROVINCE
Affordability
Examples
• Regulation of real estate
development and marketing
• Home warranty insurance
• Landlord-tenant relations
• Overseeing land use planning and
development finance
• Funding public transit
• Funding social housing programs
and projects
• Providing targeted rent supplements
• Homeowner support – e.g.,
property-tax support, property tax
deferment programs, first-time
home buyers grant
• Home adaptations for
independence
• Seniors Home Renovation Tax Credit
• Building code for B.C. – example:
options for secondary suites
• Developing uniform technical
standards that simplify building
code compliance
SHARED
RESPONSIBILITY:
MUNICIPAL
Affordability
Examples
• Regional growth strategies
and community and
neighbourhood plans –
support affordable housing
• Housing friendly regulatory
environment (e.g., allowing
secondary suites, density,
good transit corridors, etc.)
• Prezoning land
• Property tax incentives for
affordable housing
• Streamlining development
approval processes
• Reducing permitting fees
and development cost
charges
HOUSING CONCEPTS
Core Housing Need
• Adequate
(repairs)
• Suitable (size)
• Affordable (<30%
income)
HOUSING IN B.C.
Key Features
• Private market
provides most
housing (95%)
• Social/subsidized
housing (5%)
• Ownership and rental
• Single detached
housing
predominates
Issues
• Affordability becoming
increasing concern
• Homelessness
• Large urban/industrial
centres
• Supply, affordability,
quality
• Sustainability features
of building code
HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN BC
City of Vancouver
City of Victoria
• Single detached home
~ $1 million CDN
• Single detached home
~ $750,000 CDN
• Average household
income ~ $57,000
• Average household
income ~ $38,000
• Renters: ~ 52%
• Renters ~60%
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Housing Matters B.C.
• Provincial housing
policy document
• Latest update 2014
• Main policy document
• Implementation: BC
Housing and partners
• Philosophy of
partnerships
• housingmattersbc.ca
Rent Control
• Rent control features:
 Increase of inflation
+ 2%
 Deregulation
between tenancies
 Above-guideline
increases possible
• Manufactured home
parks – slight differences

MORE 
----------------------- RENTAL
GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
----------------------
Ownership – NonStrata
--------------------------------Ownership – Strata
Secondary Rental
(Condos, Suites)
Market Rental
(Purpose Built)
Rental Assistance in
Private Market
Non-market Rental
(Social Housing)
TEMPORARY 
Assisted Living
Supported Housing
Transitional Housing
Emergency Shelters
HOUSING CONTINUUM/
HOUSING SPECTRUM
 PERMANENT
OWNED
 LESS
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 1
Goals
• Stable housing with
integrated supports for
those facing
homelessness
• Increased housing
supply for the homeless
• Homeless have
improved access,
choice and stability in
social housing and
private rental market
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 2
Goals
• B.C.’s most vulnerable
citizens receive priority
for assistance
• Frail seniors, mental
illness, physical
disability, drug/alcohol
addictions, women
and children fleeing
violence, homeless and
at risk of homelessness
• Manage social housing
stock to ensure its
stability and maximum
potential
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 3
• Aboriginal housing
need is addressed
through a strong
Aboriginal housing
sector
• Off-reserve housing
• Aboriginals
overrepresented in
homelessness, core
housing need
Goals
• A strong, self-reliant
Aboriginal housing
sector
• Through: Devolution of
responsibility
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 4
Goals
• Low- to moderateincome households
have improved access
to affordable and
stable rental housing
• Increased supply,
choice and improved
accessibility of rental
housing for
low/moderate income
households and
vulnerable populations
• Streamlined systems for
landlords and tenants
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 5
• Homeownership
continues to be a
sound option for British
Columbians
Goals
• Effective systems that
support consumer
confidence
• Improved home
inspector licensing
HOUSING POLICY IN B.C.
Strategy 6
Goals
• B.C.’s governance
framework for housing,
building and technical
equipment safety is
clear, effective and
balanced
• Safety risks are
identified and
managed properly
• Safety, economic and
social interests are
recognized, balanced
and managed
appropriately
HOUSING FIRST STRATEGY
Housing First Strategy
At Home/Chez Soi Study
• Shift in provision of
housing to needy
populations
• Formerly: stabilize life,
then eligible for housing
• Housing First: No
barriers to housing,
provide supports
• Housing First effective
strategy
• $10 investment in
housing services
average savings of
$9.60 for high needs
participants and $3.42
for moderate needs
[email protected]
THANK YOU AND QUESTIONS
PROVINCIAL PLAYERS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Example
BC Housing
HPO
Real Estate Sector
Builders
Business
New home warranty
program

similar documents