Trading states in Africa.ppt

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Trading states in Africa
Chapter 11
Early civilizations of Africa
Section 1
Sahara
• Who: Africans
• What: the largest desert in the world, a
geographic feature in the great variety of
African landscapes
• Where: Northern Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: this desert plays a major role in the
development of Africa & it’s trading kingdoms
that develop
Sahara (6)
• Who: Africans
• What: the largest desert in the world; just one
geographic feature in the great variety of
African land
• Where: North Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: the geographic features of this area
played a major role in the development of
Africa
Sahara (7)
• Who: Africans
• What: largest desert in the world; just one of
the many geographic features of Africa
• Where: Northern Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: this desert played a major role in the
development of N. Africa = desert = not a lot
of vegetation = lower population; trade routes
went through here
Savannahs (6)
• Who: Africans
• What: grassy plains, make up the continent’s
largest & most populated regions
• Where: Central & South Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: this area had the most vegetation = food
= larger population; this geographic region
affected how/where ppl lived
Savannas (7)
• Who: Africans
• What: grassy plains, the continent’s largest &
most populated regions
• Where: Central & South Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: these grassy plains had a lot of
vegetation = food = people = most populous
regions of Africa
Cataracts (6)
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•
Who: Africans
What: waterfalls on high plateaues
Where: Africa
When: 730 BC- present
Why: these hindered easy movement from
place to place in Africa, acted as barriers =
travel from place to place was hard
Cataracts (7)
• Who: Africans
• What: waterfalls that hindered movement
throughout Africa
• Where: high plateaus of Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: these served as barriers to trade= they
hindered easy movement of ppls from place to
place
Workbook pg 98
• I.
– A.
• 1. Sahara- largest desert in the world, shapes
Africa = not as many ppl live here b.c. of desert
• 2. Savannahs- grassy plains w. vegetation = most
populous region
• 3. Cataracts- hindered movement throughout
Africa, acted as barriers
• I.
– B.
• 1. Minerals (salt, gold, copper ,iron) showed wealth &
power = trade increased
• 2. Camels could travel long distances w.o water & could
carry heavy loads = trade increased
Savannah
• Who: Africans
• What: grassy plains, Africa’s largest & most
populated region
• Where: Central & South Africa
• When: 730 BC- present
• Why: moving north & south throughout
Africa, this is the continent’s most populated
region b.c. of all the vegetation
Cataracts
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•
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•
Who: Africans
What: waterfalls on high plateaus
Where: Africa
When: 730 BC- present
Why: these hindered easy movement
throughout the continent b.c. they were
difficult to cross = limits travel
Workbook pg 98
• I.
• A. Geographic patterns
– Sahara- desert region in the North (not a lot of ppl live
here); Savannahs- most populated due to a lot of
vegetation = food
– Cataracts, (waterfalls)- restrict people from moving
about the continent
B. Resources spur trade
- Salt, gold, iron & copper were valuable = great
wealth & power = trade throughout Africa
- Camels allowed more trade through the desert b.c.
they were able to carry heavy loads & go long times w.o
water= trade increased through the Sahara
Desertification
• Who: Africans
• What: a climate change that slowly dried out the
Sahara, cropland & pastureland are
devoured/destroyed
• Where: Northern Africa, Sahara desert
• When: 2500 BC
• Why: as the land became parched, the desert
spread; the desertification led to migration b.c.
ppl had to find new areas to live in that
maintained their way of life
II. Part A.
• 1) Hunters & gatherers settled down &
learned to cultivate the Nile Valley &
domesticate animals
• 2)Sahara used to be covered with rich
grasslands & savannah = ppl lived here
• 3)Desertification- dried out vegetation = ppl
migrated (leave)
• 4) Ppl leave to find new areas that maintain
their ways of life
II. Part B
• 1. People migrated all throughout Africa =
diverse cultures/languages- root language =
Bantu
• 2. The Bantu spread their skills/language &
merge with other groups; still there today
Bantu
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Who: Africans
What: the root language of the African languages
Where: Africa, W. Africa
When: 1000BC- present
Why: gives the movement “Bantu migrations” its’
name; Bantu-speakers spread their skills of
farming, iron working, & domesticating animals;
other existing cultures merged w. Bantu; their
influence is still in the languages of that region
today
Nubia
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•
•
•
Who: Egyptians, Nubian, Northeast Africans
What: ancient kingdom called Kush
Where: Egypt, northeast Africa, on the Nile
When: 2700 BC
Why: this kingdom was flourishing, trade led
to contact b/n Nubia & Egypt; Nubia was
under Egyptian control & remained that way
for about 500 years = Nubia adopted several
Egyptian traditions
Meroe
Kingdoms of West Africa
Section 2
Surplus
• Who: African Farming Villagers
• What: Extra Resources for more than was
needed
• Where: Africa
• When: 100 A.D.
• Why: Development of trade allowed the
villages to keep more resources. They began
to trade their food surplus for products from
other villages. This led to an increase in trade.
Commodity
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Who: Africans
What: Valuable products
Where: Africa
When: 730 B.C.-1591 A.D.
Why: People needed salt in their diet, especially
in hot tropical areas to replace the salt lost from
perspiration. Salt was important for the use of
food and preservation. The Sahara had an
abundance of salt. The Savannah didn’t have
enough salt=commodity for them=Trade.
WK sheet #2
• Cause=Salt is needed for diet and food
preservation.
• Salt is a commodity esp. for the Savannah.
• Effect=Trade, the Savannah doesn’t have
enough=willing to trade gold for salt.
Ghana
• Who: Africans, Soninke people
• What: It’s a kingdom from many united
farming villages.
• Where: West Africa
• When: 800 A.D.
Sundiata
• Who: Sundiata, ruler of Mali
• What: sickly boy regarded as too weak to be a
threat, crushed his enemies & created the
kingdom of Mali
• Where: Egypt/Mali
• When: 1235-1255
• Why: he crushed his enemies, ran control of
the gold trade routes in Africa, & founded the
empire of Mali
Mali
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Who: Sundiata
What: empire, gold trade route was here
Where: W. Africa
When: 1235-1450
Why: Gold trade routes & salt supplies
expanded here; caravan routes made small
towns into great trading cities = many people
wanted to live here = freedom of religion &
tolerance
Mansa Musa
• Who: greatest ruler of the kingdom of Mali
• What: greatest ruler of Mali who improved it;
converted to Islam
• Where: Mali, West Africa
• When: 1312-1337
• Why: expanded Mali’s borders west to Atlantic ocean &
north; ensured peace & order in his empire; converted
to Islam = based system of justice on Quran; promoted
religious freedom & tolerance; created alliances w.
other Muslim states; brought back Muslim scholars to
promote Islamic education in Mali = a lot of West
Africa is Islamic today
Songhai
• Who: Sunni Ali, Askia Muhammad
• What: a new Muslim kingdom in West Africa as Mali was
weakening, capital= Goa
• Where: present-day Mali & Niger, W. Africa
• When: 1464• Why:
– Sunni Ali (at the height) made trade routes (gold & salt) &
wealthy cities; professional army protected the empire;
provincial governors presided over local states;
– Askia: efficient bureaucracy w. separate departments for
farming, military, & treasury; disputes over Askia’s leadership
after he died = changes in leadership = civil war & unrest
– Moroccan invaders used gunpowder to take over
Kingdoms & trading states of
EastAfrica
Section 3
Axum
Adulis
Ethiopia
King Lalibela
Swahili
Great Zimbabwe

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