8000 BCE – 600 CE

8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. Major Developments
 Neolithic Revolution / Development of Agricultural societies
 Changes in gender relations due to Neolithic Rev.
 Development of major belief systems (all EXCEPT Islam)
 Major migrations (Bantu, Huns, Germans, Polynesians)
 Early Civilizations
 Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus, Shang, Olmec, Chavin
 Classical Civilizations (600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.)
 China, India, Mediterranean, Mesoamerica
 Collapse of Classical Empires
 Han China, Western Rome, Gupta India
Continuities 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.
 Gatherer-Hunter Societies
 Nomadic Societies
Major Civilizations 8000 B.C.E. – 600 B.C.E.
 Mesopotamia – Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
 Egypt - Nile River
 Indus Valley (Harrapan) - Indus River
 Shang - Huang He/Yellow River
 Mesoamerica: (Olmec – No River!)
 Andean South America: (Chavin – No River!)
Major Civilizations 600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.
 China: Han
 India: Gupta
 Mediterranean: Greek and Roman
 Mesoamerica: Olmec
8000 B.C.E.
 Beginnings of Agriculture
3000 B.C.E.
 Beginnings of Bronze Age
 Beginnings of Early Civilizations
1300 B.C.E.
 Iron Age
(mostly 500s)
 Beginnings of ….
 Confucianism (Confucius)
 Buddhism (Siddhartha Guatama – The Buddha)
 Taoism (Lao Tsu)
(mostly 400s)
Century B.C.E
 Greek Golden Age
323 B.C.E.
 Alexander the Great
221 B.C.E.
 Qin unified China
32 C.E.
 Beginnings of Christianity
180 C.E.
 End of Pax Romana
220 C.E.
 End of Han China
333 C.E.
 Roman capital moved to Constantinople
 Beginnings of Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
476 C.E.
 Fall of Rome
527 C.E.
 Justinian Rule of Byzantine Empire
 no written documents vs. written proof of history
 Old Stone Age
 Nomadic, small communities and population,
economic distribution is more equal
 start of agriculture
 Live with husband’s family
 Trace through father’s lineage
 Farming system where animals are taken to different
locations in order to find fresh pastures
 to look at the world primarily from the perspective of
one's own culture
 Looking for food
 process by which people take an area of land to use
for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later
 a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day
Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan,
Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey.
 system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians,
using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and
alphabetic elements.
 group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from
the British Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with
 United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a
large empire.
 legendary early Greek poet and traditionally credited
with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and
 Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of
the two most influential philosophers in Western
thought. He wrote many books about physics, poetry,
zoology, logic, government, and biology.
 peasants/slaves vs. elite/upper class
 series of three wars fought between Rome and the
Phoenician city of Carthage
 Reason: clash of interests between the expanding
Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence
 Roman military and political leader
 He was instrumental in the transformation of the
Roman Republic into the Roman Empire
 Dictator for life
 King of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC
 then became the first emperor of a unified China from 221
BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor.
 dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period.
 people of southern and central India and northern Sri
 the most well known of these languages are Tamil,
Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam
 Leader of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC
 A convert to Buddhism
527 - 565 CE
 the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the
unity of the old Roman Empire
 He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law
 He was unable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the
provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore
the Mediterranean unity
 The social organization created by exchanging
grants of lands or fiefs in return for formal oaths of
allegiance and promises of loyal service
 typical of the Zhou Dynasty and the European
Middle Ages
 greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser
lords in return for military service
 Charles the Great
 Carolingian monarch who established substantial
empire in France and Germany (800 C.E)
 He helped restore some church-based education in
western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity
began a slow recovering
 After death, the empire could not survive
 Formed by the 8th century by exchanging gold from the
forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for
goods from Mediterranean north Africa
 Camels were introduced
 By 3rd century C.E., it rose to power by taxing the salt and
gold exchanged within its borders
 By the 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were
at its height of power
 Almoravid armies invaded from north Africa (1076), the
power was declining despite the kingdom’s survival
 new states rose in the 13th century
 Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central
American contemporary with Teotihuacán
 featured monumental architecture, written language,
calendar, mathematical systems, and highly developed
 developed in the second millennium BCE in the central
Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America.
 included the urbanized cultures of Chavin, Moche,
Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya and
other Pre-Incan cultures
 The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the
15th century.
 Then, in the 16th century, Spain conquered Peru.
 a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in
the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States
in the centuries leading up to European contact
 began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River
Valley (for which it is named)
 Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also
begun to develop similar characteristics at this point
 Native American civilization centered around the
present-day “Four Corners” area of the Southwest
United States.
 Political regime where most political power
effectively rests with a small segment of society
(typically the most powerful, whether by wealth,
military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
 form of government in which a religion or faith plays
a dominant role
 were not property themselves and could not be sold
apart from the land which they worked
 Worked on the fields of the privileged land owners in
return for protection and the right to work on their
leased fields
 belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities
 the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the
father of Isaac
 "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special
claim on him"
 the dispersion of a group of people throughout the
 Examples: Jewish & African
 Founder/teacher of Taoism (Daoism)
 record of speeches by Confucius and his disciples,
as well as the discussions they held
 Teacher/founder of Confucianism
 blessing of Heaven
 if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased
and would give this to someone else
 body of concepts and values which are thought to be
held in common by Christianity and Judaism
 typically considered a fundamental basis for Western
legal codes and moral values

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