The Golden Age of Athens!

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The Golden Age of
Athens!
Historians often refer to the
 Time period between 460 and 429 BCE as
the Golden Age!
 What does this term suggest to you about
life in Athens during this time?
 Scholars use the term, “Golden Age” to
refer to a historical period marked by
prosperity and by great achievements in
the arts

Politics and Govt
Philosophy
Math &
5th c. BCE Athens
Science
The Golden Age
Poetry
The Age of Pericles
Art, Sculpture
History
Architecture
Drama/Theatre
How Athens ….
•Citizens still
voted
•Still gathered at
acropolis and
agora
•Each summer
held festival to
honor Athena
•Used Navy to become
leader in Greek affairs
•gained wealth through
trade
•Acropolis had new
buildings to show
increased wealth and
power
•Built a marble temple to
Athena called Parthenonruins still there today
•By 460 B.C. Athens is the
leading city-state in Greece
Golden Politics
 Pericles,
great
Athenian
leader
 3 GOALS for
ATHENS:
 Strengthen democracy,
strengthen the empire & glorify
Athens
Golden Politics
 Democracy:
 Increased
the number
of public officials who
received salaries
 Introduced direct democracy;
allowed for increased
participation
Golden Politics
 As
Athens flourished,
resentment began to develop
on the Peloponnesus
Peninsula
 Resisted Athens & formed
their own alliance (The
PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE)
Architecture:
The many public buildings and temples
were constructed with marble and
featured slender, well-proportioned
columns.
• Many modern public buildings imitate the
three great styles of Greek columns:
•
Doric Column
Ionic Style Column
Corinthian Column
Golden Art
 Art
and Sculpture:
 Grace, strength,
perfection
 Portrayal IDEAL beauty
 Focused on harmony, order,
balance and proportion
Golden Proportion
Subjects were
gods, goddesses
and athletes
• They realistically
depicted the
human body
utilizing various
materials such as
marble, bronze,
ivory and gold.
•
Myron,
•
c. 450 BC
The discabolus
portrays strength,
motion and ideal
serenity, while
honoring Olympic
athletes.
Hermes
Praxiteles-
“The
Praxitelian curve ”-
Aphrodite Praxiteles
the illusion of life
through light, shadow,
polished marble and
contraposto
Golden Drama
 Tragedy:
 SERIOUS
DRAMA;
love, hate, war & betrayal
 The main character is generally
a tragic hero with a fatal flaw,
usually excessive pride
Golden Drama
 Comedy:
 Slapstick
comedy
& crude humor
 Poked fun at politics, ideas
and respected leaders
Aeschylus,
525- 456 BC
The Father of Tragedy
>Employed a dialog
between one actor and
the chorus
>Introduced the Trilogy
Sophocles,
495-406 BC
•
Dramatic plays
added a 3rd actor,
dealt with the
conflict between a
person’s will and his
fate; include
Oedipus Rex,
Antigone and
Electra,
Euripides,
480-406 BC
Examined political and
social ideas and
vigorously criticized war,
prejudice, hypocrisy and
greed
• “Aeschylus and Sophocles
showed how men ought
to be, Euripides showed
men as they are.”
• Ahead of his time, felt
unappreciated-left Athens
for Macedonia.
•
The Greeks and History
Knowledge of the past had consisted of myths and
legends.
The first true historians attempted to base their
writings on facts.
Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.)
• Called the “father of history”
• The Inquiries or The Histories
• Traveled to learn and write
about the Persian Wars
• Much information about foreign
customs, etc.
• Gave the gods a role in
historical events
Thucydides (471-400 B.C.E.)
• Called the “first scientific
historian”
• History of the Peloponnesian
Wars
• Discussed cause and effect
• Gave the people involved the
main role in historical events
Herodotus,
484 – 424
BC
The “Father of
History”
• Described the Persian
invasions of Greece…
• He embellished facts
with fable, superstition
and hearsay but was
the first to try and
“recount the past so
that future generations
can benefit.”
•
Pythagoras
Hippocrates
Leaders in Greek Science
•
Lived circa 580 B.C.E.-circa 490 B.C.E.
•
Called the “father of numbers” –
mathematician who believed everything
could be numbered
•
Pythagorean Theorem: “The square of the
hypotenuse of a right angle is equal to the
sum of the squares on the other two
sides.”
Pythagoras
Hippocrates,
460-377 BC
•
•
“Father of
Medicine”attributed disease
to natural, not
supernatural
causes.
The “Hippocratic
Oath” to uphold
medical standards
is still taken by
medical students
upon graduation.
Resentment
 As
Athenian
wealth & power INCREASED,
so did hostility among other
city-states
 Led to the Peloponnesian
War:
The Peloponnesian War:
The Alliance System
Fails!
The Peloponnesian War
Athens abusing funds
from Delian League
 27 year war ensues
 Enthusiasm for the
war high on both
sides
 Pericles brings all the
people into the city
 He depends on the
navy, high walls and
food supplies to
string out the war

What caused the Peloponnesian
War?

FEAR!!

Athens's fear of the Peloponnesian
Leagues Army

Sparta’s fear of Athenian trade power
The Aftermath
 What
happened to Athens
after the Peloponnesian
War?
 DECLINE of the Golden Age
 NO MORE empire, power or
wealth

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